Project Details:

Soybean entomology in the North Central region: Management and outreach for new and existing pests

Parent Project: This is the first year of this project.
Checkoff Organization:North Central Soybean Research Program
Categories:Insects and pests, Nematodes
Organization Project Code:60051846
Project Year:2016
Lead Principal Investigator:Kelley Tilmon (The Ohio State University)
Co-Principal Investigators:
Punya Nachappa (Indiana University)
Erin Hodgson (Iowa State University)
Matthew O'Neal (Iowa State University)
Brian McCornack (Kansas State University)
Janet Knodel (North Dakota State University)
Deirdre Prischmann-Voldseth (North Dakota State University)
Christian Krupke (Purdue University)
Adam Varenhorst (South Dakota State University)
Andy Michel (The Ohio State University)
Brian Diers (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
George Heimpel (University of Minnesota)
Robert Koch (University of Minnesota)
Bruce Potter (University of Minnesota)
Deborah Finke (University of Missouri)
Thomas E Hunt (University of Nebraska)
Robert Wright (University of Nebraska)
Glen Hartman (USDA/ARS-University of Illinois)
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Keywords: aphids, entomology, extension, insecticide, monitoring, outreach, pest mangagement, resistant varieties, Stink Bugs, technology

Contributing Organizations

Funding Institutions

Information and Results

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Project Summary

The subject of this proposal is research and outreach on soybean entomology in the North Central Region. The program areas in this proposal encompass extension and outreach of project results, insect monitoring and management for new and emerging insect pests in the region, aphid-resistant varieties and virulent aphid biotypes, and biological control. Projects within these program areas include the creation and distribution of extension deliverables, stink bug monitoring and management, studies on the ability of pollinators to increase yield potential, monitoring for soybean aphid insecticide resistance, breeding for aphid-resistant varieties, genotyping and mapping virulent aphid biotypes that overcome resistant varieties, developing virulence management strategies, and the determining economic return on resistant varieties. Our interdisciplinary entomology and plant breeding team, comprised of 18 research and extension scientists in 12 states, has a long history of working together to solve insect problems of regional importance in soybean and to communicate project results.

Although our past efforts have been focused on soybean aphid, there are several new or emerging pests of soybean in the North Central Region which deserve attention. For example, economically damaging populations of native stink bugs are becoming more common in several states, and the introduced brown marmorated stink bug is spreading rapidly in the Midwest (in Ohio, where it has been in the North Central region the longest, some locations have experienced up to 30% yield loss from this pest). Another insect, thrips, that have always been present in soybean at low levels, have new damage potential as vectors of soybean vein necrosis virus. While a massive research effort on such new and emerging pests is not yet practical, we are well poised for background work that will (1) diagnose the extent of current problems, and (2) position us well to respond to increasing problems in the future by doing the background work necessary for management recommendations.

Another important area for entomological research in soybean is on pollinators. There is increasing evidence that soybean yield increases when plants are visited by pollinators, despite being bred for self-fertilization. This improvement varies between 6% to 18% depending upon type of pollinators present. Research in this proposal addresses the yield-increase potential from these beneficial insects. Other objectives relate to aphid resistant varieties, how to make this resistance durable and sustainable, and how they may fit economically into soybean production systems.

This proposal is organized by four program areas, each with associated projects.
The major program areas:
I. Extension and Outreach (communicating project results to producers);
II. Insect Monitoring and Management (stink bug monitoring and management, pollinator diversity and soybean yield, soybean aphid insecticide resistance, monitoring for aphids, thrips, and soybean vein necrosis, technology development); III. Resistant Varieties and Biotypes (breeding for resistant varieties, aphid virulence genotyping and mapping, virulence management for resistant varieties, economic returns on resistant varieties;
IV. Biological Control.

Project Objectives

I. Extension and Outreach

II. Insect Monitoring and Management
1. Stink bug monitoring and management
2. Pollinator diversity and soybean yield
3. Soybean aphid insecticide resistance
4. Monitoring for aphids, thrips, and soybean vein necrosis
5. Technology development

III. Resistant Varieties and Biotypes
1. Breeding for resistant varieties
2. Aphid virulence genotyping and mapping
3. Aphid virulence management for resistant varieties
4. Economic returns on resistant varieties

IV. Biological Control

Project Deliverables

The following are deliverables for a 3-year time frame:
• six extension/outreach products
• capstone outreach event
• list of stink bug species in North Central soybean
• region-specific stink bug scouting methods
• list of pollinator species in North Central soybean
• estimate of yield enhancement provided by pollinators in soybean
• assay kit for monitoring aphid insecticide resistance
• estimate of percentage of thrips carrying Soybean Vein Necrosis virus
• aphid-counting app for smartphones
• new aphid-resistant breeding lines
• release of one soybean variety
• mechanism of aphid virulence inheritance
• ground-truth an aphid virulence management strategy
• completed study on economic returns of aphid resistance
• releases of an aphid parasitoid

Progress of Work

Updated July 1, 2020:
This report covers the first term of a new project (October to March). We have not had our first growing season on this mostly field-based project. Progress on many objectives has been in terms of preparation for the first field season this summer.

I. Extension and Outreach
We hired an extension coordinator who will generate outreach deliverables for the project.

II. Insect Monitoring and Management
1. Stink bug monitoring and management: We finalized the summer research protocol and hired a graduate student (MN) to coordinate. Participants in MN, OH, NE, IN, NS, SD, MO have identified field study sites for summer of 2016, hired undergrad labor, and bought supplies. Also, we have developed an initial protocol for sampling stink bug stylets for yeasts and bacteria that may be transmitted to soybeans, exacerbating the damage from feeding alone.

2. Pollinator diversity and soybean yield: We finalized the summer 2016 research protocol for this study. Participants in ND, SD, OH, MN, NE, IN, MO have identified field study sites for the summer, hired labor, and bought supplies for the work this summer.

3. Soybean aphid insecticide resistance: This is a continuation of an objective from a previous grant. Graduate student Matheus Ribeiro (NE) has been retained for the project. The do-it-yourself resistance bioassay kit procedures have been optimized, and cooperators have been selected. For previous work, a manuscript on baseline susceptibility is in preparation.

4. Monitoring for aphids, thrips, and soybean vein necrosis: Thrips for this study will be collected in the summer of 2016 in IA, IL, IN, MI, MN, WI. Aphid monitoring will continue this summer through the suction trap network. 2015 fall trap data predicts a small 2016 spring egg hatch and fewer aphids this summer. In addition, we have compiled the suction trap data from 2001 to 2014, and incorporated it as part of the publicly available data set of the Kellogg Biological Station.

5. Technology development: We hired a grad student to develop protocols that will be used to test our existing aphid-counting code, which was developed and beta tested during the previous NCSRP project. We are currently developing a protocol to test the effect of relevant variables on accuracy of our beta software this summer in IA, MN, and NE.

III. Resistant Varieties and Biotypes
1. Breeding for resistant varieties: We have begun work to backcross Rag4 and Rag6 into the MG group I and II backgrounds that Rag1, Rag2, and Rag3 were backcrossed into during the recently completed NCSRP aphid project. New information on markers close to these genes will be used to verify the presence of Rag4 in backcross material that was previously generated. This marker testing is currently underway. Germplasm with Rag6 was requested from MSU and we hope to have the Rag6 germplasm in time for spring planting. Germplasm with all combinations of Rag1, Rag2 and Rag3, including the three way pyramid, was distributed to four co-PIs for summer testing. We analyzed data from 2015 yield tests of experimental lines developed with Rag1, Rag2 or both genes combined. Several experimental lines with these resistance genes will be evaluated in uniform tests in 2016. The experimental line LD12-12701a, which has both Rag1 and Rag2, performed well in the MGII 2015 SCN Preliminary Tests. This line is being licensed for increase and possible commercialization pending its performance in 2016 yield tests. In addition, the IL program previously licensed three lines with Rag2 and one with Rag1 that are currently under commercial production.

2. Aphid virulence genotyping and mapping: We have identified biotype 1 and biotype 2 for initial crosses. We extracted DNA from Parents, F1s, and F2 offspring (both male B1 and female B2 and male B2 and female B1 crosses). We sequenced B1 and B2 parents to identify informative molecular markers and designed primers based on the draft soybean aphid genome and used in the genotyping assay. Map construction will begin in the next period.

3. Aphid virulence management for resistant varieties: We completed laboratory tests of nine new aphid resistant varieties that are pyramids (combinations of 2 or more resistance genes), and verified that biotype 4 can survive on both Rag1 and Rag2. We are preparing to test pyramids of novel aphid-resistant genes in the field during the summer of 2016 – including hiring a grad student for the project.

4. Economic returns on resistant varieties: We hired a graduate student (IA) to coordinate. During the summers of 2016-2018, large experimental plots will be established in May and sampled throughout the growing season.

IV. Biological Control
We initiated an overwintering experiment to measure overwintering success for A. glycinis and A. rhamni (to be completed in April). Analysis of other field data from 2015 indicates that A. certus is capable of suppressing soybean aphids below economic threshold levels.

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Final Project Results

Benefit to Soybean Farmers

Performance Metrics

Project Years