Pyrethroid Resistant Soybean Aphids, Drones for Insect Scouting and Detection of Invasive Soybean Gall Midge
Sustainable Production
Biotic stressCrop protectionField management Pest
Parent Project:
This is the first year of this project.
Lead Principal Investigator:
Janet Knodel, North Dakota State University
Co-Principal Investigators:
Patrick Beauzay, North Dakota State University
Project Code:
Contributing Organization (Checkoff):
Institution Funded:
Brief Project Summary:

The goals of this research are to provide soybean growers with facts needed to manage pyrethroid-resistant soybean aphids, mitigate the development of resistance to other insecticides, utilize drones for scouting for soybean insects, and to survey for the soybean gall midge. By understanding where pyrethroid resistance exists in North Dakota and which insecticides will manage these pests, experts can help soybean growers make effective decisions to maximize yields. Researchers will evaluate a broad range of registered insecticides with different modes of action to determine which provide the best management of pyrethroid-resistant soybean aphids.

Key Benefactors:
farmers, agronomists, entomologists, extension specialists

Information And Results
Project Deliverables

Menger, J., P. Beauzay, A. Chirumamilla, C. Dierks, J. Gavloski, P. Glogoza, K. Hamilton, E.W. Hodgson, J.J. Knodel, I.V. MacRae, D.T. Pezzini, B.D. Potter, A.J. Varenhorst and R.L. Koch. 2020. Implementation of a diagnostic-concentration bioassay for detection of susceptibility to pyrethroids in soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Journal of Economic Entomology: 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toz351

Knodel, J.J. 2019. Pyrethroid Resistant Soybean Aphids in ND. NDSU Extension Crop and Pest Report #15 (August 29, 2019).

Multistate Activities with NCSRP. The multistate extension publication was updated and reprinted in 2019 to include two new insecticides labeled for soybean aphid control in soybeans (Sefina from BASF and Transform from Corteva).
Koch, R., E. Hodgson, J. Knodel and A. Varenhorst. 2019. Management of Insecticide-resistant Soybean Aphids E1878 (revised). Multistate publication with University of Minnesota Extension, Iowa State University Extension and Outreach, NDSU Extension and SDSU Extension.

Koch, R. L., B.D. Potter, J. Moisan-De Serres, J. Knodel, V. Calles-Torrez, J. Gavloski, T. Cira, M. Bartz, and R. Gagné. 2020. Karshomyia caulicola (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) associated with Sclerotinia-infected soybean in the United State and Canada. The Great Lakes Entomologist.

Calles-Torrez, V., A.H. Knudson, J. Ostrander, P.B. Beauzay and J.J. Knodel. 2020. New gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in soybean in Midwest. NPDN News 15(1): 1-2 (January/February 2020).

Knodel, J.J. 2019. Soybean gall midge. NDSU Extension Crop and Pest Report #12 (July 25, 2019).

Knodel, J.J. 2019. No soybean gall midge detected in ND. NDSU Extension Crop and Pest Report #15 (August 29, 2019).

Research Presentations / Posters:
Knodel, J., V. Calles-Torrez and P. Beauzay. 2019. Detection of Gall Midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Soybeans in North Dakota. In ESA Forum: Soybean Gall Midge, J. McMechan (organizer). Entomological Society of American Annual Meeting. 17-20 Nov. 2019, St. Louis, MO.

Final Project Results

Please see attached file.

View uploaded report PDF file

Soybean aphids are a major insect pest of soybeans in North Dakota. The main goal of this research was to develop the best pest management (BPM) practices for insecticide resistant soybean aphids. Soybean aphids that are resistant to pyrethroids (bifenthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin) were detected in eastern North Dakota in 2017. Laboratory bioassays confirmed that about 70% of the soybean aphid populations tested were resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in 2017. In 2019, soybean aphids were low and present at non-economic populations in soybeans in ND. A few aphids were collected from a soybean field near Emerado in Grand Forks County for the pyrethroid resistance bioassay. Results indicated that this population was fairly resistant to bifenthrin (Trade name Brigade 2EC and generics) with 60-70% survivorship, and resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior II and generics) ranged up to 50% survivorship. This suggests that the pyrethroid resistant soybean aphids are mobile and may have migrated from other resistant areas in 2019, such as south-central Minnesota where the resistance first occurred in 2015. Since pyrethroid resistant soybean aphids can vary by year and locations, screening more populations of soybean aphids in ND is key to determine their presence or absence, and their resistance status. These findings will be essential for soybean growers, so they can wisely decide which insecticide to use. Insecticide resistant soybean aphids will continue to complicate insecticide management for growers and continued research is critical.
Due to low soybean aphid populations and difficulties in obtaining the drone probe for scouting for soybean insect pests, we were not able to complete the drone work.
Our last objective was to survey for the invasive soybean gall midge, a new insect pest of soybeans. Soybean gall midge continues to increase its presence in Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, South Dakota from a total of 67 counties in 2018 to 93 counties in 2019. Soybean gall midge also was detected in a new state in 2019, northwest Missouri. Since its populations are increasing in our neighboring states of Minnesota and South Dakota, growers need to know if soybean gall midge is present in North Dakota. A total of 78 soybean fields were inspected for soybean gall midge in 10 counties in southeastern and east central North Dakota. Result of our 2019 soybean gall midge survey were negative for all soybean fields surveyed in North Dakota.

The United Soybean Research Retention policy will display final reports with the project once completed but working files will be purged after three years. And financial information after seven years. All pertinent information is in the final report or if you want more information, please contact the project lead at your state soybean organization or principal investigator listed on the project.