Project Details:

Title:
Developing an integrated management and communication plan for soybeans

Parent Project: Developing an integrated management and communication plan for soybean SDS
Checkoff Organization:North Central Soybean Research Program
Categories:Soybean diseases, Research coordination, Communication
Organization Project Code:NCSRP
Project Year:2017
Lead Principal Investigator:Daren Mueller (Iowa State University)
Co-Principal Investigators:
Yuba Kandel (Iowa State University)
Leonor Leandro (Iowa State University)
Forrest W Nutter Jr (Iowa State University)
Gregory Tylka (Iowa State University)
Martin Chilvers (Michigan State University)
Dechun Wang (Michigan State University)
Albert Tenuta (Ontario Ministry of Agriculture-Food & Rural)
Kiersten Wise (Purdue University)
Febina Mathew (South Dakota State University)
Carl Bradley (University of Kentucky)
Damon Smith (University of Wisconsin)
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Keywords: SDS

Contributing Organizations

Funding Institutions

Information and Results

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Project Summary

The foundational management strategy for sudden death syndrome (Fusarium virguliforme; SDS) in soybean is using resistant cultivars. However, in years when environmental conditions are favorable for disease development, it is evident that resistance alone does not provide adequate disease control or reduce farmer risk sufficiently. Sudden death syndrome is an annual threat in most of the North Central region. As the disease continues to spread into new areas, however, we have an opportunity for early education and improved awareness of the importance of using an integrated management program for SDS. Thus, the main goal of this project is to investigate management options that will help ensure resistant cultivars will be as effective as possible in years when conditions are highly conducive for SDS. We are requesting funding for the second year of this project (major accomplishments of the year 1 listed in section IV).

In 2015, we finished a study looking at the effect of SCN management on SDS severity. We also established field trials to test the effects of fungicide treatments on SDS and we identified differences in efficacies among the products in the first year. We also established a corn residue management trial that is now available to test the effects of corn residue removal and tillage on SDS. We plan to build on the investment made last year, and also add the new angles of SDS management using other management approaches. From our previous SDS management project we identified the most effective quantitative PCR technique for identifying F. virguliforme in soybean plants and in soil. This will allow us to evaluate the effects of management practices on inoculum levels in the field and F. virguliforme levels in soybean plants.

Project Objectives

Project Deliverables

Objective 1:
• A manuscript in progress looking at interaction between herbicide injury and ILeVO “halo effect”.
• Data on the effect of new seed treatments, in-furrow and foliar fungicides on SDS.
• Identification of products that work best for SDS management and when these products will be most needed.
• Identification of the ideal plant population with ILeVO seed protectant to maximize yield and ROI.
• A plan for stewardship of seed treatment products.

Objective 2:
• Completed data analysis for effect of SCN resistance on SDS severity, with a manuscript and press releases disseminating findings to stakeholders.
• Data on how corn residue management will affect SDS inoculum levels and subsequent disease development.
• Information on nutrient levels may affect SDS.
• Data on the effect of SCN on soybean root structure, specifically how it relates to SDS development.

Objective 3:
• Information on how management options may affect the risk of SDS.
• A protocol for soil sampling to identify high-risk fields for SDS.
• A correlation of SDS symptoms with inoculum levels in the field.

Objective 4:
• A full understanding of the impact of SDS on yield at the plant and patch level, which will guide recommendations for management.
• Identification of zones in fields where SDS management may be more economically feasible.

Objective 5:
• A portfolio of products to help farmers and agribusiness professionals to understand SDS and make informed decisions on best management practices.
• Return on investment estimates for different SDS management strategies.
• A map of where SDS is currently found in the U.S. and Canada.

Progress of Work

Update:
Fluoyram (ILeVO, Bayer CropScience) seed treatment or in-furrow application was found superior to manage SDS than other fungicide products evaluated. We published a manuscript (Plant Disease 100:1339-1350). We continue evaluating fungicides including new products to compare them with base seed treatment and ILeVO in their ability to reduce SDS. In 2016, we conducted field experiments in Iowa, Indiana, Michigan, South Dakota, Wisconsin and Ontario, Canada. We evaluated eight fungicide products applied as seed and foliar applications on SDS susceptible and resistant cultivars. Plant population, root rot, foliar SDS incidence and severity, and yield data were recorded using standard protocols and data analysis has been complete. Root samples were collected to quantify F. virguliforme in soybean root tissue. DNA extraction has been complete and DNA samples are being processed for qPCR.

• We established field experiments at locations in Iowa, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin and Ontario for a study coordinated by Dr. Shawn Conley to investigate the economic risk and profitability of seed treatments on soybeans planted at different populations. The three seed treatments consisted of untreated control (UTC), a commercial base treatment (CB), and CB treatment + IleVO were compared at different plant populations. Soybean yield was evaluated in fields with and without a history of SDS. We collected data on plant population, SDS incidence and severity multiple times, and yield. A manuscript has been accepted in Crop Science and an extension publication was written and posted in the CoolBean website. Economic risk and profitability of seed treatments and seeding rate for each seed treatment was also estimated using different soybean prices. The CB and ILeVO seed treatments increased profit at each grain sale price and across all seeding rates compared to the UTC.

• We completed a study evaluating planting date and seed treatment effect on SDS development and published a manuscript (Plant Disease 100:1735-1743). To summarize, ILeVO seed treatment reduced disease severity and increased yield nearly in all plantings and cultivars, with a maximum yield response up to 21% (Roland Iowa). No clear link between early planting and SDS was observed. Planting earlier than Mid-May did not increase the risk of SDS being developed. Mid-June plantings yielded lower grain up to 19 bu/A compared to early May plantings. In all experiments, early-May plantings resulted in lower or similar FDX as treatments planted in mid-May or early June.

• We established field experiments in Iowa, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin and Ontario to investigate the effect of corn residue on SDS development. We compared two levels of residue removals and two tillage systems in corn and soybean rotation system. The first year of data on plant population, root rot, foliar SDS, and yield were collected and are being analyzed. Preliminary data analysis showed that SDS was higher in residue not removed treatment than in residue removed for both tilled and no-tilled trials in Iowa. Michigan and Wisconsin did not detect significant difference between treatments in the no-tilled and tilled trials.

• We completed field experiments on determining how increasing SCN resistance to SCN-resistant cultivars will affect SDS resistance performance. Manuscript has been accepted for publication and will be published in Plant Disease. We found PI88788 resistance source has been broken by nematode population in all tested sites except in Rodney, Ontario. SCN resistance played a critical role on SDS development. Cultivars with no resistance to SCN had the highest disease and lowest yield. Even though, the PI 88788 type resistance was not holding up, any type of SCN resistance led to greater yields, lower SDS, and lower SCN reproduction than the cultivars with resistance. Fall season SCN population density and SDS were positively correlated.

• We presented our research reports at professional meetings, on Plant Management Network, many state or province level talks, seminars, media interviews, talk in field days and conferences for farmers and also published in state newsletter articles, several media releases etc. To communicate with researchers, we published 4 manuscripts and two manuscripts are accepted in peer-reviewed journals. We also had several press releases, including some jointly with NCSRP, based on results from this project. We developed two regional publications through the Crop Protection Network (Scouting for Sudden Death Syndrome on Soybean and Soybean Disease Management: Sudden Death Syndrome). These are linked to the SRII site. We also updated SRII with information from this proposal.

• The result from this study will have directly benefited soybean farmers in the North Central region and also establish foundation to address future research and management questions.

Final Project Results

Update:
In our previous regional evaluations, fluoyram (ILeVO, Bayer CropScience) seed treatment or in-furrow application was found superior to manage SDS than other fungicide products evaluated. A manuscript was published in Plant Disease (Plant Disease 100:1339-1350). We continue evaluating new products including biological fungicides to compare them with base seed treatment and ILeVO in their ability to reduce SDS. In 2017, we performed field experiments in Iowa, Indiana, Michigan, South Dakota, Wisconsin and Ontario, Canada. We evaluated 9 fungicide products applied as seed and foliar applications on SDS susceptible and resistant cultivars. Plant population, root rot, root dry weight, foliar SDS incidence and severity, and yield data were recorded using standard protocols and data are being collected and analyzed.

• We completed field experiments in Iowa, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin and Ontario for a study coordinated by Dr. Shawn Conley to investigate the economic risk and profitability of seed treatments on soybeans planted at different populations. The three seed treatments consisted of untreated control (UTC), a commercial base treatment (CB), and CB treatment + IleVO were compared at different plant populations. Soybean yield was evaluated in fields with and without a history of SDS. A manuscript has been published in Crop Science (Crop Sci. 56:2251-2262) and an extension publication was posted in the CoolBean website. Economic risk and profitability of seed treatments and seeding rate for each seed treatment was also estimated using different soybean prices. The CB and ILeVO seed treatments increased profit at each grain sale price and across all seeding rates compared to the UTC.

• A manuscript evaluating planting date and seed treatment effect on SDS development has been published in Plant disease (Plant Disease 100:1735-1743).

• In 2017, we continued field experiments in Iowa, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin and Ontario to investigate the effect of corn residue on SDS development. We compared two levels of residue removals and two tillage systems in corn and soybean rotation system. We collected plant population, root rot, foliar SDS, and yield data and they are being analyzed.

• We completed field experiments on determining how increasing SCN resistance to SCN-resistant cultivars will affect SDS resistance performance. A manuscript has been posted online in Plant Disease. In summary, we found PI88788 resistance source has been broken by nematode population in all tested sites except in Rodney, Ontario. SCN resistance played a critical role on SDS development. Cultivars with no resistance to SCN had the highest disease and lowest yield. Even though, the PI 88788 type resistance was not holding up, any type of SCN resistance led to greater yields, lower SDS, and lower SCN reproduction than the cultivars with resistance. Fall season SCN population density and SDS were positively correlated.

• We identified fields with long-term fertility experiments in collaboration with Dr. Antonio Malarino, Professor of Nutrient Management Research and Extension, ISU, at the Northeast Research Farm in Nashua and the Southeast Research Farm in Crawfordsville, to determine how soil potassium levels affect SDS. We collected SDS incidence and severity and yield data in 2017. Data are being analyzed. We are working on establishing protocols for greenhouse studies.

• In 2017, we tagged plants with different visual ratings of SDS from low to high. Root samples were collected to quantiy F. virguliforme. DNA extraction is in process. Next step will be to quantify the pathogen in root tissue and determine the correlation with visual ratings.

• To determine the soil sampling protocol for determining SDS pathogen level in soil, we identified fields with low and high risk of SDS based on previous years SDS severity and collected samples in different time and from different soil zones. DNA extraction has been completed and DNA samples are being processed for qPCR.

• We presented our research reports at professional meetings, on Plant Management Network, many state or province level talks, seminars, media interviews, talk in field days and conferences for farmers and also published in state newsletter articles, several media releases etc. To communicate with researchers, we published 6 manuscripts in peer-reviewed journals. We also had several press releases, including some jointly with NCSRP, based on results from this project. We developed two regional publications through the Crop Protection Network (Scouting for Sudden Death Syndrome on Soybean and Soybean Disease Management: Sudden Death Syndrome). These are linked to the SRII site. We also updated SRII with information from this proposal.

• The result from this study will have directly benefited soybean farmers in the North Central region and also establish foundation to address future research and management questions.

Benefit to Soybean Farmers

Performance Metrics

Project Years