Project Details:

Title:
Developing an integrated management and communication plan for soybean SDS

Parent Project: Developing an integrated management and communication plan for soybean SDS
Checkoff Organization:North Central Soybean Research Program
Categories:Soybean diseases, Research coordination, Communication
Organization Project Code:NCSRP -
Project Year:2018
Lead Principal Investigator:Daren Mueller (Iowa State University)
Co-Principal Investigators:
Yuba Kandel (Iowa State University)
Leonor Leandro (Iowa State University)
Gregory Tylka (Iowa State University)
Martin Chilvers (Michigan State University)
Dechun Wang (Michigan State University)
Albert Tenuta (Ontario Ministry of Agriculture-Food & Rural)
Febina Mathew (South Dakota State University)
Carl Bradley (University of Kentucky)
Kiersten Wise (University of Kentucky)
Damon Smith (University of Wisconsin)
Show more
Keywords:

Contributing Organizations

Funding Institutions

Information and Results

Click a section heading to display its contents.

Project Summary

The foundational management strategy for sudden death syndrome (Fusarium virguliforme; SDS) in soybean is using resistant cultivars. However, in years when environmental conditions are favorable for disease development, it is evident that resistance alone does not provide adequate disease control or reduce farmer risk sufficiently. Sudden death syndrome is an annual threat in most of the North Central region. As the disease continues to spread into new areas, however, we have an opportunity for early education and improved awareness of the importance of using an integrated management program for SDS. Thus, the main goal of this project is to investigate management options that will help ensure resistant cultivars will be as effective as possible in years when conditions are highly conducive for SDS. We are requesting funding for the third year of this project (major accomplishments of the year 1 listed in section IV).

In 2016, we finished a study looking at the effect of SCN management on SDS severity and a manuscript has been accepted for publication. We completed field experiments for a study coordinated by Dr. Shawn Conley to investigate the economic risk and profitability of seed treatments on soybeans planted at different populations. A manuscript has been accepted for publication in Crop Science and extension publication was posted online. We also established field trials to test the effects of fungicide treatments on SDS and we identified differences in efficacies among the products in the first year. This year, we plan to add some nematicide seed treatments to compare them in their effect to manage SDS and SCN because there is a growing interest in nematicidal seed treatments by Midwest soybean growers. We also established a corn residue management trial to test the effects of corn residue removal and tillage on SDS.

We compared two levels of residue removals and two tillage systems in corn and soybean rotation system in 2016. Preliminary analysis of the first year data showed that SDS was higher in residue not removed plots than in residue removed for both tilled and no-tilled plots in Iowa but no differences between residue removal treatments in Michigan and Wisconsin. Tillage had no influence on SDS. We plan to build on the investment made last year, and also add the new angles of SDS management using other management approaches. From our previous SDS management project we identified the most effective quantitative PCR technique for identifying F. virguliforme in soybean plants and in soil. This will allow us to evaluate the effects of management practices on inoculum levels in the field and F. virguliforme levels in soybean plants.

Project Objectives

Objective 1. Determine how seed treatment, in-furrow, and foliar fungicides will affect SDS
Objective 2. Explore the effect of cultural practices on Fusarium virguliforme inoculum levels and SDS development
Objective 3. Develop simple, cost effective tools for detection of Fusarium virguliforme in the field
Objective 4. Develop models to quantify the negative yield impacts of SDS in response to disease and inoculum intensity at the plant to field scale
Objective 5. Communicate research results with farmers, agribusinesses and other soybean stakeholders

Project Deliverables

A manuscript in progress looking at interaction between herbicide injury and ILeVO “halo effect”.
• Data on the effect of new seed treatments, in-furrow and foliar fungicides on SDS.
• Identification of products that work best for SDS management and when these products will be most needed.
• Identification of the ideal plant population with ILeVO seed protectant to maximize yield and ROI. A manuscript “Response of broad spectrum and target specific seed treatments and seeding rate on soybean seed yield, profitability, and economic risk across diverse environments” has been accepted in Crop Science and an extension publication was written and posted in the CoolBean website
• A plan for stewardship of seed treatment products.

Progress of Work

Updated April 6, 2018:
Fluoyram (ILeVO, Bayer CropScience) seed treatment was found effective to manage SDS and increase yield in our previous evaluations (Plant Disease 100:1339-1350). We compared new products including biological fungicides and nematicides with basic seed treatment, untreated control, and ILeVO in their ability to reduce SDS. In 2017, we performed field experiments in Iowa, Indiana, Michigan, South Dakota, Wisconsin and Ontario, Canada. We evaluated 9 treatments including fungicides and nematicides applied on seed and in-furrow on SDS susceptible and resistant cultivars at each location. We gathered data on plant population, root rot, root dry weight, foliar SDS incidence and severity, and yield using standard protocols from all locations and analyzed. In 2017, ILeVO and ILeVO with ethephone were found to be the most effective at reducing SDS when combined from all locations. We recently finished extracting and counting SCN population in spring (before planting) and fall (after harvest) to determine how SCN reproduction is affected by those treatments and data analysis is in progress.

" We complied data from multiple locations evaluating ILeVO seed treatment for SDS management and yield response to the seed treatment using a meta-analysis approach. A manuscript has been published in Plant disease (in press). In summary, a 35% reduction in foliar disease and 4.4 bushels/acre (7.6%) increase in yield were estimated for fluopyram-ammended seed treatment relative to commercial base seed treatments without fluopyram. A graduate student, Daniel Sjarpe, working on this project for his master's degree with Dr. Daren Mueller and Leonor Leandro at Iowa State University, recently graduated.

" We completed a study determining the interaction between the fluopyram seed treatment and pre-emergence herbicide in Iowa and Indiana. We published a manuscript in Crop Protection (Crop protection 106:103-109). In summary, seed treated with fluopyram resulted in higher phytotoxicity at VC-V1 than seed without fluopyram, regardless of preemergence herbicide treatment. The combination of preemergence herbicide and fluopyram did not increase the severity of soybean injury in any year or location compared to either applied alone. These results indicate that while injury can occur with both preemergence herbicides and fluopyram-treated seed, phytotoxicity is not more severe when both pesticides are used together, and yield is not reduced by their use.

" We completed field experiments on determining how increasing SCN resistance to SCN-resistant cultivars will affect SDS resistance performance. A manuscript has been published in Plant Disease (Plant Disease 101: 2137-2143). In summary, SCN resistance played a critical role on SDS development. Fall season SCN population density and SDS were positively correlated.We found PI88788 resistance source has been broken by nematode population in all tested sites except in Rodney, Ontario. Cultivars with no resistance to SCN had the highest disease and lowest yield. Even though, the PI 88788 type resistance was not holding up, any type of SCN resistance led to greater yields, lower SDS, and lower SCN reproduction than the cultivars with no resistance.

" In 2017, we continued field experiments in Iowa, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin and Ontario to investigate the effect of corn residue on SDS development. We compared two levels of residue removals and two tillage systems in corn and soybean rotation system. We gathered plant population, root rot, foliar SDS, and yield data and analyzed and a manuscript is being written. In brief, no difference was observed between the tillage system treatments, nor between the corn residue removal treatments. However, the disease level was miminal in 2017. The non-residue plots produced 7 bushels/a more yield than residue removed plots in Iowa

" We identified fields with long term fertility experiments in collaboration with Dr. Antonio Malarino, Professor Nutrient Management Research and Extension, ISU, in North east research farm, Nashua and South east research farm, Crawfordsville Iowa to determine how soil potassium levels affect SDS. We collected SDS and yield data and analyzed in 2017. In 2017, plots with no potassium had less disease than the potassium applied plots. We continue collecting data in 2018. We established a protocol for greenhouse studies using aeroponics chamber. We will conduct an experiment under controlled environment soon to determine if susceptibility of soybean plants to F. virguliforme increases as the potassium and phosphorous are reduced.

" In 2017, we tagged plants with different visual ratings of SDS from low to high. Root samples were collected to quantiy F. virguliforme in those roots. DNA extraction is completed from all of the plants roots collected. DNA samples are being processed for qPCR, which is next step to quantify the pathogen in root tissue and determine the correlation with visual ratings.

" To determine the soil sampling protocol for determining SDS pathogen level in soil, we identified fields with low and high risk of SDS based on previous years SDS severity and collected samples in different time and from different soil zones. DNA extraction has been completed and DNA samples are being processed for qPCR.

" We presented our research reports at professional meetings, on Plant Management Network, many state or province level talks, seminars, media interviews, talk in field days and conferences for farmers and also published in state newsletter articles, several media releases etc. To communicate with researchers, we published 3 manuscripts in peer-reviewed journals. We also had several press releases, including some jointly with NCSRP, based on results from this project. We developed two regional publications through the Crop Protection Network (Scouting for Sudden Death Syndrome on Soybean and Soybean Disease Management: Sudden Death Syndrome). These are linked to the SRII site. We also updated SRII with information from this proposal.

" The result from this study will have directly benefited soybean farmers in the North Central region and also establish foundation to address future research and management questions.

View uploaded report Word file

Final Project Results

Updated March 2, 2020:
A manuscript entitled “Benefits and Profitability of Fluopyram-Amended Seed Treatments for Suppressing Sudden Death Syndrome and Protecting Soybean Yield: A Meta-Analysis” has been published in Plant disease (Plant Disease 102:1093-1100). In this manuscript, we complied data from multiple locations evaluating ILeVO seed treatment for SDS management and yield response to the seed treatment using a meta-analysis approach. In summary, a 35% reduction in foliar disease and 4.4 bushels/acre (7.6%) increase in yield were estimated for fluopyram-amended seed treatment relative to commercial base seed treatments without fluopyram. A graduate student, Daniel Sjarpe, working on this project for his master's degree with Dr. Daren Mueller and Leonor Leandro at Iowa State University, recently graduated. A manuscript evaluating different rates of fluopyram-amended seed treatments and cultivars on root infection by Fusarium virguliforme, foliar symptom development, and yield of soybean is being written and will be submitted to a journal for publication in a couple months.

In 2018, we conducted field experiments in Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, South Dakota, Wisconsin and Ontario, Canada to test the efficacy of fungicide/nematicides for SDS management. We evaluated 12 treatments including fungicides and nematicides applied on seed and in-furrow on SDS susceptible and resistant cultivars at each location. Each location collected data on plant population, root rot, root dry weight, foliar SDS incidence and severity, using standard protocols. We also collected soil samples for SCN counts and HG tying at planting at each location. SCN counting from those spring samples has just finished. Soil samples from all locations have been sent to SCN diagnostics at University of Missouri, Columbia for HG typing. In 2017, ILeVO and ILeVO with ethephone were found to be the most effective at reducing SDS when combined from all locations. We are gathering and analyzing data from 2018 field experiments. We are finishing up a manuscript from our 2015 and 2016 evaluations and will be submitted soon in Plant Disease.

We collected soil samples from ILeVO-treated and untreated plots at planting and will be collected in fall after harvest to determine how ILeVO treatment effects on F. virguliforme population and soil health. Spring samples were split in half and one half was used to extract F. virguliforme DNA using qPCR protocol identified in our previous study. The remaining samples was used to assess indicators of soil function and health, including soil physicochemical properties, enzyme activities, mycorrhizal colonization potential, and total nematode community assessment. Samples for soil health test are being processed in Dr. Nathan Kleczewski at University of Illinois.

We conducted field experiments in Iowa, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin and Ontario to investigate the effect of corn residue on SDS development in 2016 and 2017. In 2018, we continued this experiment in Iowa and Ontario, Canada for the third year. We compared two levels of residue removals and two tillage systems in corn and soybean rotation system. We recorded data on plant population, root rot, foliar SDS, and yield. We are collecting and analyzing data, and writing a manuscript. In Iowa, we sprayed corn plots of the same field with Trivapro at R1 and collected leaf samples from sprayed and non-sprayed corn plots to examine if fungicide application in corn influences microbial population including F. virguliforme on corn leaf. Samples were sent to Dr. Nathan Kleczewski, University of Illinois for processing.

Fields with long-term fertility experiments established by Dr. Antonio Malarino, Professor Nutrient Management Research and Extension, ISU, in North east research farm, Nashua and South east research farm, Crawfordsville Iowa were selected to determine how soil potassium levels affect SDS in 2017. We collected SDS and yield data and analyzed in 2017. In 2017, plots with no potassium had less disease than the potassium applied plots. In 2018, the experiments were continued and we monitored those plots in Nashua for SDS at soybean GS R5.6 but no foliar symptoms were observed.

In 2018, we tagged nearly 700 individual plants with different visual ratings of SDS from low to high in three farmers field located in the Boone, Hamilton and Webster counties and micro-plot experiment at ISU research farm at hinds. The microplot experiment was artificially inoculated using different rates of F. virguliforme inoculum to generate a wide range of SDS foliar symptoms. Disease was rated multiple times in those plants. About 200 plants were collected to quantify F. virguliforme in roots at R6. We are extracting DNA and running qPCR, which is next step to quantify the pathogen in root tissue and determine the correlation with visual ratings. At the end of the season, the remaining labelled plants will be harvested individually to correlate yield with the SDS severity. To determine the soil sampling protocol for determining SDS pathogen level in soil, we identified fields with low and high risk of SDS based on previous years SDS severity and collected samples in different time and from different soil zones in 2017. DNA extraction has been completed and DNA samples are being processed for qPCR in 2018.

We completed field experiments on determining how increasing SCN resistance to SCN-resistant cultivars will affect SDS resistance performance. A manuscript has been published in Plant Disease (Plant Disease 101: 2137-2143).

We published a manuscript in Crop Protection (Crop protection 106:103-109) from a study determining the interaction between the fluopyram seed treatment and pre-emergence herbicide in Iowa and Indiana. In summary, seed treated with fluopyram resulted in higher phytotoxicity at VC-V1 than seed without fluopyram, regardless of preemergence herbicide treatment. The combination of preemergence herbicide and fluopyram did not increase the severity of soybean injury in any year or location compared to either applied alone. These results indicate that while injury can occur with both preemergence herbicides and fluopyram-treated seed, phytotoxicity is not more severe when both pesticides are used together, and yield is not reduced by their use.

We presented our research reports at professional meetings (SSDW and APS), on Plant Management Network, many state or province level talks, seminars, media interviews, talk in field days and conferences for farmers and also published in state newsletter articles, several media releases etc. We updated SRII with information from this proposal.

The result from this study will have directly benefited soybean farmers in the North Central region and also establish foundation to address future research and management questions.

View uploaded report PDF file

View uploaded report 2 PDF file

View uploaded report 3 PDF file

View uploaded report 4 PDF file

This project has several direct benefits to soybean farmers in the North Central region by providing evaluations of current and future crop production practices/products and how these practices will either a) fit into an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy for SDS; or b) affect the ability of resistant cultivars to manage SDS, thus reducing economic losses to farmers through better management of SDS. This study has added knowledge and provided some recommendations for soybean farmers in-terms of managing SDS. New SDS management tool (seed treatment with ILeVO fungicide) has been commercially available for farmers. The project extensively evaluated the benefits of ILeVO seed treatment under different disease pressure and multiple environments. Yield benefits of ILeVO seed treatment was apparent when foliar symptoms were observed and the magnitude was greater with higher disease pressure. Moderately resistant cultivars had less disease than susceptible cultivars suggesting cultivars selection is important. Resistant cultivars in combination with ILeVO seed treatment could provide effective management of SDS. No clear link between the soil temperature and SDS level indicate planting early does not necessarily pose greater risk of SDS, but delayed planting caused significant yield reduction regardless of SDS pressure. We recommend farmers not to delay planting in Midwest to prevent yield loss from SDS. Cultivar selection combined with ILeVO seed treatment can reduce SDS in early-planted soybean (late April to mid-May). Overall, a 35% reduction in foliar disease index (FDX) and 4.4 bu/a (7.6%) increase in yield were estimated for ILeVO seed treatment to the commercial base (CB) seed treatment. The estimates were obtained by summarizing over 200 field trials conducted in 12 U. S. states and Ontario, Canada by meta-analytic approach. Yield and disease response to ILeVO seed treatment was not significant when disease pressure was low and response increased with higher level of disease meanings ILeVO seed treatment is not recommended in the field with no history of SDS.

The commercial base (CB) and ILeVO (CB + ILeVO) seed treatments decreased risk and substantially increase profit across a wide range of seeding rates compared to untreated seed. The CB or ILeVO seed treatments realized the lowest risk and highest average profit increase when seeding rates were lowered to the economically optimal seeding rate of 103,000 – 112,000 seeds/a. SDS severity is influenced by SCN population density and HG type, which are important to consider when selecting cultivars for SCN management. This study documents a shift in SCN population over a wide geographic area, which may impact SDS severity and yield of soybean cultivars with PI 88788-type resistance. Farmers are advised to not only sample fields to know SCN field population levels, but also determine the HG type of SCN in each field to determine if cultivars with a source of resistance other than PI 88788 are needed. Seed treated with ILeVO causes temporary phytotoxicity on seedlings regardless of pre-emergence herbicide treatment but it does not result in long-term soybean stunting or yield loss. Soybean plants quickly outgrow the ILeVO damage on seedlings. The combination of pre-emergence herbicide and ILeVO does not increase the severity of soybean injury compared to either applied alone. These results indicate that while injury can occur with both pre-emergence herbicides and ILeVO-treated seed, phytotoxicity is not more severe when both pesticides are used together, and yield is not reduced by their use therefore farmers does not require to be overly concerned about the phytotoxicity. In addition, we identified the most useful molecular tool to quantify SDS pathogen in soybean root and soil, which can be used as in plant diagnostic clinic to routine diagnosis and quantification of SDS pathogen in farmers field.

Benefit to Soybean Farmers

Performance Metrics

During the project period, we published following 6 manuscripts in peer-reviewed journals summarizing data from this project.

Kandel, Y. R., McCarville, M., Adee, E. A., Bond, J. P., Chilvers, M. I., Conley, S. P., Giesler, L. J., Kelly, H. M., Malvick, D., Mathew, F. M., Rupe, J. C., Sweets, L., Tenuta, A., Wise, K. A., and Mueller, D. S. 2018. Benefits and profitability of fluopyram-amended seed treatments for suppressing sudden death syndrome and protecting soybean yield: A meta-analysis. Plant Dis.102:1093-1100.

Kandel, Y. R., Mueller, D. S., Legleiter, T., Johnson, W. G., Young, B. G., and Wise, K. A. 2018. Impact of fluopyram fungicide and preemergence herbicides on soybean injury, population, sudden death syndrome, and yield. Crop Prot. 106:103-109.

Gaspar, A.P., Chilvers, M.I., Wise, K.A., Tenuta, A.U., Mueller, D.S., Conley, S.P. 2017. Response of broad spectrum and target specific seed treatments and seeding rate on soybean seed yield, profitability, and economic risk across diverse environments. Crop Science 57:2251-2262 Doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.11.0967.

Kandel, Y. R., Wise, K. A., Bradley, C. A., Chilvers, M. I., Byrne, A. M., Tenuta, A. U., Faghihi, J., Wiggs, S. N., and Mueller, D. S. 2017. Effect of soybean cyst nematode resistance source and seed treatment on population densities of Heterodera glycines, sudden death syndrome, and yield of soybean. 101:2137-2143.

Kandel, Y. R., Wise, K. A., Bradley, C. A., Chilvers, M. I., Tenuta, A. U., Mueller, D. S. 2016. Fungicide and cultivar effects on sudden death syndrome and yield of soybean. Plant Dis. 100:1339-1350. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1094/PDIS-11-15-1263-RE

Kandel, Y. R., Wise, K. A., Bradley, C. A., Tenuta, A. U., and Mueller, D. S. 2016. Effect of planting date, seed treatment, and cultivar on sudden death syndrome of soybean. Plant Dis. 100:1735-1743 http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1094/PDIS-02-16-0146-RE

A two-year study to evaluate different rate of fluopyram seed treatments and cultivars on root infection by Fusarium virguliforme, foliar symptom development, and yield of soybean has been completed and manuscript writing is on progress. A graduate student, Daniel Sjarpe, working on this project for his master's degree with Dr. Daren Mueller and Leonor Leandro at Iowa State University, recently graduated. Manuscript writing is in progress.

Three-year field experiments to investigate the effect of corn residue on SDS development has recently been completed. We compared two levels of residue removals and two tillage systems in corn and soybean rotation system. We recorded data on plant population, root rot, foliar SDS, and yield. We are collecting and analyzing data, and writing a manuscript. A graduate student, Grazieli Araldi Da Silva, working on this project for her PhD with Dr. Daren Mueller and Leonor Leandro at Iowa State University, is about to finish her degree. Manuscript writing is in progress.

We presented our research reports at professional meetings (Southern soybean disease workshop (SSDW), APS etc.), on Plant Management Network, many state or province level talks, seminars, media interviews, talk in field days and conferences for farmers and also published in state newsletter articles,

We had 20+ media releases, several press releases, including some jointly with NCSRP, based on results from this project. We developed two regional publications through the Crop Protection Network (Scouting for Sudden Death Syndrome on Soybean and Soybean Disease Management: Sudden Death Syndrome). These are linked to the SRII site. We also updated SRII with information from this proposal.

Project Years