Project Details:

Seeding Date & Cultivar Influence on Soybean NE North Dakota

Parent Project: This is the first year of this project.
Checkoff Organization:North Dakota Soybean Council
Categories:Economics, Crop management systems
Organization Project Code:QSSB
Project Year:2019
Lead Principal Investigator:Bryan Hanson (North Dakota State University-Langdon Research Extension Center)
Co-Principal Investigators:

Information and Results

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Project Summary

Soybean was the number one commodity crop in North Dakota in 2017. Seeding date and cultivar selection are two important production decisions that produces make in order to maximize production. With improved genetics and early maturing soybeans being developed, soybean acreage has expanded to the northern regions of North Dakota. Excessively wet spring conditions may shift seeding date towards the end or beyond the seeding window for optimum crop performance. An early June hailstorm in Cavalier, Pembina and Walsh Counties in 2017 resulted in replanting of soybean fields up to July 5 per Risk Management Agency (RMA) rules. Yield reductions with late seeding of full season crops, such as soybeans, often fail to reach maturity before a fall killing frost. To date, the vast majority of seeding date research in North Dakota has been conducted in the central, east central and southeast regions of the state. Developing a seeding date database for soybeans is critical in the cooler and shorter growing season region of northeast North Dakota. This proposed research will examine three cultivars, at varying maturities, at five seeding dates ranging from May 15 to June 30. This information will provide producers, insurance agents and the RMA with tools necessary to increase soybean production and profitability in northeast North Dakota.

Project Objectives

1. Improve soybean performance for North Dakota producers in the northern counties of northeast North Dakota by determining the relationship between cultivar maturity and seeding date on soybean yield and agronomic traits.
2. To provide RMA (Risk Management Agency) and crop insurance agents data on the effects of replanting past the final planting date (June 10) on yield and quality of soybeans in the northern most counties of northeast North Dakota.

Project Deliverables

Published results and presentations will include the Langdon annual research report, Langdon Research Extension Center website, extension events and field days. In addition, data will made available to state and regional extension agronomists.

Progress of Work

Updated April 20, 2019:
See File 1 below

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Final Project Results

Updated May 18, 2019:

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Northeast North Dakota has seen a dramatic increase in soybean acreage in recent years especially counties along the Canadian border where the state’s coolest temperatures and shortest growing seasons occur. Choosing the right combination of seeding date and cultivar maturity group (MG) is an important decision producers make in obtaining optimum soybean production. The objective of this study was to provide research based data to assist farmers in determining the relationship between seeding date and MG for the NE region of the state.

Research was conducted at Langdon with five seeding dates and three MGs at each seeding date. Seeding dates were in approximate 10-day intervals ranging from May 15 to June 25. Maturity groups consisted of 00.5, 00.9 and 0.1 Roundup Ready cultivars. The target plant population was 180,000 plants per acre seeded in 6-inch rows. The June 25 seeding date failed to produce a harvestable crop because of a killing frost on September 29.

Agronomic trait data trends (not shown) indicated the number of days to mature decreased with later seeding dates while later MGs took more days to mature. Plant and pod height decreased with later seeding dates. No differences were observed in grain protein among seeding dates but oil content decreased at later seeding dates.

Yields were greatest at the earliest seeding date and decreased at each of the later subsequent dates (Figure 1). Yield decreases between the May 15 and June 14 seeding dates for the 00.5, 00.9 and 0.1 cultivars were 13.6, 21.4, and 23.7 bu/a, respectively. Yield response to seeding date varied by MG. Maturity group cultivars 00.9 and 0.1 had significant higher yields at the May 15 and May 24 seeding date, but at the June 14 seeding date the MG 00.5 cultivar had the highest yield. The 00.9 MG had the greatest yield on the June 4 seeding date. The further seeding date is delayed into June, the greater chance of a harvestable crop with the earliest MG. However, chances of a harvestable crop seeded the last ten days of June would be problematic with even the earliest MG and would be dependent on weather conditions and timing of the first fall freeze in any given year.

Benefit to Soybean Farmers

Anticipated results from this trial will identify the effects of cultivar maturity and seeding date on soybean yield and other traits for the northern border counties of northeast North Dakota. Yield and crop value expectations based on this study will provide producers, insurance agents and the RMA with important information on late planting seasons or replant situations that could include soybeans or cropping alternatives if allowed.

Performance Metrics

Project Years