Project Details:

Title:
Determining Optimal Planting Date and Soil Temperature for Enhanced Growth and Yield

Parent Project: This is the first year of this project.
Checkoff Organization:North Dakota Soybean Council
Categories:Crop management systems, Economics
Organization Project Code:QSSB
Project Year:2019
Lead Principal Investigator:Gautam Pradhan (North Dakota State University-Williston Research Extension Center)
Co-Principal Investigators:
Keywords:

Contributing Organizations

Funding Institutions

Information and Results

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Project Summary

Planting date plays significant role in field crop production. Early or late planting may decrease grain yield and quality of a crop due to increased biotic (insect, disease, weed, and bird incidence), and/or abiotic stress (frost, drought, and high temperature). Northwestern North Dakota has a cool semi-arid climate with annual precipitation of <13 inches, which is at least 5 inches lower than the eastern part of the state. There is a need of determining optimal soybean planting dates for northwestern ND that provide optimum growing period, decrease chances of frost and/or drought damage, and enhance grain yield. Soybean will be seeded every week from May 1 to June 12, and growth and yield will be monitored throughout the season. Also, soil temperature at 2 and 4” depths will be monitored throughout the growing period starting from one week before the first planting date. We hypothesize that optimal soil temperature for planting soybean in this region is different than the 50° F recommended for whole ND. The research results will be communicated to clienteles through presentations at field days and workshops, and publication in electronic and printed formats. This project addresses the priority of NDSC to develop soybean production management guidelines for western ND that increase soybean yield, quality, and the profit of soybean producers.

Project Objectives

a. To find out optimal soybean planting date for western ND.
b. To determine optimal soil temperature (at 2 and 4” depth) for planting soybean at western ND.

Project Deliverables

Progress of Work

Updated May 8, 2019:
See downloaded report below

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Final Project Results

Updated July 8, 2019:

View uploaded report Word file

Research Conducted
A glyphosate resistant soybean variety was seeded at Williston Research Extension Center, Williston, ND on 3rd, 10th, 16th, and 25th of May, and 3rd, 9th, and 15th of June 2018 using a 7 rows no-till plot planter. Soil moisture and temperature data at 4 inches depth were continuously recorded from 04-26-2018 to 10-30-2018. Canopy temperature and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were measured weekly with a FLIR® E60 Thermal Imaging camera and a modified NDVI Sony camera. The crop was harvested using a plot combine and biomass were collected four days before harvest.

Why the research is important to ND soybean farmers
Soybean acreage has been steadily increasing in ND, including the western part of the state, which has exceptionally drier climate than the eastern part. There is a lack of a soybean production management guideline suitable for no-till dryland soybean producers of western ND. Determination of suitable seeding date and soil temperature is crucial to avoid abiotic and biotic stress and to have a sustainable higher soybean yield and the farm income under no-till dryland condition.

Final findings of the research
There was a significant effect of seeding date on all the analyzed traits except on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and canopy temperature (CT). On August 22, 2018, the average NDVI was 0.63 and the average CT was 32.4 °C. Soybean seeded on and after June 9 had the highest plant stand than other seeding dates (Fig. 1A). Soybean seeded on May 16th was 3 to 5 inches taller, had maximum above ground biomass, test weight, and grain protein than other seeding dates (Table 1). Soybean seeded on May 16th also produced maximum grain yield of 17.8 bu/a, which was on an average 3.3 to 6.8 bushels more grain than other planting dates (Fig 1B). Soybean 1000 grain weight was higher when seeded after June 3rd and the grain oil content was higher when seeded earlier.

Benefits/Recommendations to North Dakota soybean farmers and industry
The growth, grain protein, test weight, and yield results showed that mid-May is suitable for seeding soybean under no-till dryland condition of Western North Dakota. The experiment will be repeated next year to validate the findings.

Benefit to Soybean Farmers

Planting date plays significant role in field crop production. Early or late planting may decrease grain yield and quality of a crop due to increased biotic (insect, disease, weed, and bird incidence), and/or abiotic stress (frost, drought, and high temperature). Northwestern North Dakota has a cool semi-arid climate with annual precipitation of <13 inches, which is at least 5 inches lower than in the eastern part of the state. There is a need of determining an optimal soybean planting dates and soil temperature for Northwestern ND that provide optimum growing period, decrease chances of frost and/or drought damage, and enhance grain yield. The information on optimal planting dates and soil temperature from this research will ensure sustainable higher soybean yield under semiarid conditions and thus enhance the farmers’ economy.

Performance Metrics

Project Years