Project Details:

Title:
Increasing Efficiency and Cost Effectiveness in Intensively Managed Soybean

Parent Project: Increasing Efficiency and Cost Effectiveness in Intensively Managed Soybean
Checkoff Organization:Kansas Soybean Commission
Categories:Marketing
Organization Project Code:
Project Year:2019
Lead Principal Investigator:Jim Long (Kansas State University)
Co-Principal Investigators:
Keywords:

Contributing Organizations

Funding Institutions

Information and Results

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Project Summary

Objectives

1. Screen Genotypes under simple high yield versus low yield environments to determine best adapted genotypes. Rate varieties for charcoal rot and yield characteristics and components. [yr 3 . . yr 3]
2. Use IPM (Integrated Pest Management), scouting and predictive models to refine guidelines for fungicides and insecticides in intensive production. [yr 3 …yr3]
3. Intensify research into auxin use to develop greater root development in high yielding soybeans. [yr 3….yr 3]].
4. Refine nitrogen use in soybean under irrigation by doing calibration studies. [yr 3…yr 3]
5. Explore the use of novel compounds like sugar and aspirin added to spray components to determine if there is an effect and what that effect might be. [yr 3…yr 3]
6. Incorporate new compounds that have just gone generic for cost of use, and effectiveness in complete treatment packages. This would also include treatment plans to prevent pest resistance. Again, the key to the complete package is component and overall cost. Charcoal rot and foliar diseases will be looked at.

Procedures
Objective 1: This is a result of previous research to determine best methods of identifying genetic potential under both irrigated and non-irrigated production. Replicated field work will be in the 1st year to evaluate differences in genetic potential of soybean varieties under both irrigated and non-irrigated studies. Limited research trials have shown that some varieties have responded to whole plant health / intensive management while others have not. This study will be conducted to determine the best method of field testing. Do we include both a high and low yield section of each plot in the same trial, different plots of high and low yield within the same trial, or separated trials of both high and low yield with the same varieties. Second while we still do not know if this response is a result of physiology of the plant, growth habit (i.e. determinate vs. indeterminate), or a difference in response at growth stages (i.e. vegetative or reproductive stages) we now know that we can separate varieties by assessing their yield potential under both aggressive high yield and passive low yield environments. Another aspect of this objective will be to work with industry to develop novel or more useful field assessment methods of treatments on plant stand, plant growth and development, and yield component testing. All data will be run through statistical programs to determine differences and information will be made available to the public through all available media. Greenhouse and field evaluation of varieties will be conducted. The objective will be to determine if there are genetic differences that affect final grain yield which can be exploited by producers and industry. Samples will be taken throughout the life of the soybean, especially during late vegetative and early reproductive growth stages to determine genetic effects on early growth, yield components such as number of pods, and then final yield. All data will be run through statistical programs to determine differences and information will be made available to the public through all available media. Plots for 2018 have included traditional, randomized block, strip trials, and split plots with conventional and high yield treatments.

Objective 2: Replicated field work has indicated that older low-cost products can be used effectively to help control diseases such as charcoal rot and soybean pod worm. However, a question that continues to come up is one of need of fungicides and insecticides if pests may not be present at each growth stage. This research will indicate if BMPs need to include scouting or predictive models to determine need of pest control. One part of this research is the early warning of impending problems and will include predictive models, scouting of the crop, insect trapping, and use of sentinel plots of susceptible or untreated controls to determine pest presence. The idea is to increase the efficiency and contribute to BMP’s for using fungicides and insecticides in intensive management of soybean. This research will enable us to develop BMPs that are built on sound agronomic and economic practices. All data will be run through statistical programs to determine differences and information will be made available to the public through all available media. This study in 2018 has been broadened to include management of disease and insects versus total control of diseases and insects. Extensive scouting has included multiple fields looking for both disease and insects.

Objective 3: Recent research has indicated that the plant growth hormone auxin or auxin like compounds have the greatest potential for producers to achieve high yield soybeans. This research will look at this in both irrigated and non-irrigated studies and hopefully under drought stress where its usefulness in helping to develop more root mass can increase grain yield. Another aspect would be the use of products that stimulate protective responses within the plant that alter their physiology and make them more disease resistant. All data will be run through statistical programs to determine differences and information will be made available to the public through all available media. 2018 data will be discussed at December commission meeting.

Objective 4: Replicated field work will be initiated to determine best rates of nitrogen to use under both irrigated and non-irrigated soybean production. It will in part be a calibration study as well as look at agronomic characteristics such as lodging, plant height, and yield components. N effect on charcoal rot will also be evaluated. In 2018 Nitrogen was applied multiple times at 10 lbs per application. Results will be discussed at December commission meeting.

Objective 5. Replicated field work with simple spray additives like sugar and aspirin will be initiated to evaluate their effect on fungicide efficacy and overall health of the plant including growth and disease incidence and severity. Current studies were initiated during the last commission project and are not finished. In addition trials will be taken to yield and yield components will be determined. All data will be run through statistical programs to determine differences and information will be made available to the public through all available media. 2018 work continues studies that began during the last funding cycle and will be reported on during commission meetings in December.

Objective 6. New products hit the market each year and older compounds go off patent and are sold as generic. This study would determine what is available new to the market and provide useful data to determine their or similar products effectiveness and cost. All data will be run through statistical programs to determine differences and information will be made available to the public through all available media. Updates will be presented in December.

Justification
Objective 1. Whole plant health and intensive production are dependent on the varieties that we use in our production systems. Recent work has indicated that some varieties respond to intensive production while others do not. I propose to use replicated field testing of varieties in a performance testing mode to use a simple no treatment versus full load treatment of each variety under different testing strategies to identify those varieties that perform well under both low and high yield environments

Objective 2. Low cost alternatives work in intensive soybean production systems yet there have been questions about need of pest control during each growth stage treatment. This new work will look at Integrated Pest Management by scouting, trapping and using susceptible sentinel plots to determine if treatment is warranted. For instance if insects are present 80% of the years at R3 then treatment may be warranted as a preventative. This should answer questions concerning justification of treatment. Also, if trapping and sentinel plots allow for “early warning” of impending pest populations then that would also help in treatment decisions. In addition new products with advances in fungicide activity and broad spectrum activity should be considered to prevent pest resistance development. This research should provide science based answers to product management within an intensive production system

Objective 3. Producers that routinely produce high yields in soybean production not only have an overall system that works but also attempt to do many of the small things that build yield. This concept is shown by some of the outside-the-box thinking with growth stage applications of products that change the growth or physiology of the plant. My research has indicated an effect of auxin like compounds that may increase root mass. With the increased research by doing calibration studies with these auxin like compounds such as 2,4,-D I propose to find levels that will give desired increase in root production and not damage the plant. Many of these effects are not well understood and I propose to find simple answers as to what cost effective improvements can be made in intensive production systems. In particular I want to explore the use of products that either mimic or induce plant growth regulator type of effects in soybeans.

Objective 4. I have done limited work on nitrogen application especially in irrigated soybean but have found that the first 50 pounds of added N has the greatest effect. I have also had lodging problems from applications that have been excessive. Therefore I propose to look at a nitrogen calibration study where I look at various rates on N applied at V4 and R2 growth stages to look at their effect on agronomic traits and yield and yield components. I also will look at added N effect on charcoal rot.

Objective 5. Simple additives like sugar are being utilized by top soybean producers. This will be an attempt to verify the practice and also determine the nature of the effect of these additives. So little is known about the needs and effects of these types of production practices under very high yields that this information will be of great benefit to the data base.

Objective 6. New products hit the generic list each year as they go off patent. A new addition is azoxystrobin whose use in an intensively managed soybean crop can help with disease control while assisting in prevention of developing pest resistance. I propose to look at these products, and determine how they fit in BMPs for production. I will also look at their effect on charcoal rot when used early in the season or as seed treatments.

Project Objectives

Objectives

1. Screen Genotypes under simple high yield versus low yield environments to determine best adapted genotypes. Rate varieties for charcoal rot and yield characteristics and components. [yr 3 . . yr 3]
2. Use IPM (Integrated Pest Management), scouting and predictive models to refine guidelines for fungicides and insecticides in intensive production. [yr 3 …yr3]
3. Intensify research into auxin use to develop greater root development in high yielding soybeans. [yr 3….yr 3]].
4. Refine nitrogen use in soybean under irrigation by doing calibration studies. [yr 3…yr 3]
5. Explore the use of novel compounds like sugar and aspirin added to spray components to determine if there is an effect and what that effect might be. [yr 3…yr 3]
6. Incorporate new compounds that have just gone generic for cost of use, and effectiveness in complete treatment packages. This would also include treatment plans to prevent pest resistance. Again, the key to the complete package is component and overall cost. Charcoal rot and foliar diseases will be looked at.

Project Deliverables

Justification
Objective 1. Whole plant health and intensive production are dependent on the varieties that we use in our production systems. Recent work has indicated that some varieties respond to intensive production while others do not. I propose to use replicated field testing of varieties in a performance testing mode to use a simple no treatment versus full load treatment of each variety under different testing strategies to identify those varieties that perform well under both low and high yield environments

Objective 2. Low cost alternatives work in intensive soybean production systems yet there have been questions about need of pest control during each growth stage treatment. This new work will look at Integrated Pest Management by scouting, trapping and using susceptible sentinel plots to determine if treatment is warranted. For instance if insects are present 80% of the years at R3 then treatment may be warranted as a preventative. This should answer questions concerning justification of treatment. Also, if trapping and sentinel plots allow for “early warning” of impending pest populations then that would also help in treatment decisions. In addition new products with advances in fungicide activity and broad spectrum activity should be considered to prevent pest resistance development. This research should provide science based answers to product management within an intensive production system

Objective 3. Producers that routinely produce high yields in soybean production not only have an overall system that works but also attempt to do many of the small things that build yield. This concept is shown by some of the outside-the-box thinking with growth stage applications of products that change the growth or physiology of the plant. My research has indicated an effect of auxin like compounds that may increase root mass. With the increased research by doing calibration studies with these auxin like compounds such as 2,4,-D I propose to find levels that will give desired increase in root production and not damage the plant. Many of these effects are not well understood and I propose to find simple answers as to what cost effective improvements can be made in intensive production systems. In particular I want to explore the use of products that either mimic or induce plant growth regulator type of effects in soybeans.

Objective 4. I have done limited work on nitrogen application especially in irrigated soybean but have found that the first 50 pounds of added N has the greatest effect. I have also had lodging problems from applications that have been excessive. Therefore I propose to look at a nitrogen calibration study where I look at various rates on N applied at V4 and R2 growth stages to look at their effect on agronomic traits and yield and yield components. I also will look at added N effect on charcoal rot.

Objective 5. Simple additives like sugar are being utilized by top soybean producers. This will be an attempt to verify the practice and also determine the nature of the effect of these additives. So little is known about the needs and effects of these types of production practices under very high yields that this information will be of great benefit to the data base.

Objective 6. New products hit the generic list each year as they go off patent. A new addition is azoxystrobin whose use in an intensively managed soybean crop can help with disease control while assisting in prevention of developing pest resistance. I propose to look at these products, and determine how they fit in BMPs for production. I will also look at their effect on charcoal rot when used early in the season or as seed treatments.

Progress of Work

Updated July 10, 2019:
First Quarter Report for Kansas Soybean Commission June 15, 2019
Increasing Efficiency and Cost Effectiveness in Intensively Managed Soybean.
James H. Long Ph.D.
Activity for the quarter ending May 31, 2019 in the project includes land preparation, fertilization, herbicide application and planting of plots. While not complete planting is on schedule . Development of methods such as in crop, disease and insect models will soon begin and after all data is collected data presentation will begin.
Objective 1- Screening for Genetic potential . Varieties with varying response to charcoal rot will be compared to determine their potential under both conventional (check) and intensive management. Plots have been developed and fertilized and herbicide has been applied. Plots were planted in late April and had 8 inches of rain the first 7 days after planting. Plots will be replanted.
Objective 2 – BMP’s. A second study to develop best management practices for predicting disease and insect problems and need for crop monitoring or treatment has been set up with insect traps and sentinel plots established and set up in the field. This also includes weather data from time of planting to determine the effect of temperature and rainfall on insect and disease infestation in the soybean crop.
Objective 3 – PGR use on soybean Another study will be planted and treatments will soon be applied to compare PGR use on soybean to enhance soybean growth and yield especially early in the season. In addition early application and late application of N fertilizer will be evaluated with this study and re in 2017.
Objective 4. - Nitrogen Rates in High Yield Dryland and Irrigated Soybean. As a part of the previous objectives study Nitrogen rates and times of application will be utilized throughout the growing season. Their effect on grain yield and quality as well as the agronomic characteristics such as lodging will be followed throughout the year. Plots will be planted and treatments will soon be applied.
5. - Novel compounds. Plots will be planted and treatments will soon be applied like sugar added to spray components to determine if there is an effect and what that effect might be. Other compounds that mimic plant growth regulators such as auxin and kinetin will be applied both early in vegetative and late during pod setting to determine their effects on yield and agronomic characteristics.
Objective 6. – Incorporation of Generic Compounds into a Cost Effective Package. Plots will be planted that compare untreated checks with generic and standard treatments. Comparisons of treatments will include critical stages of growth as well as specific insect and disease occurrence. Cost of treatment as well as effectiveness of treatments will be determined.

Updated September 14, 2019:
Second Quarter Report for Kansas Soybean Commission September 15, 2019
Increasing Efficiency and Cost Effectiveness in Intensively Managed Soybean.
James H. Long Ph.D.
Activity for the quarter ending August 31, 2019 in the project includes land preparation, fertilization, herbicide application and planting of plots. Planting is complete but was behind schedule . Development of methods such as in crop, disease and insect models has begun and is in process and after all data is collected data presentation will begin.
Objective 1- Screening for Genetic potential . Varieties with varying response to charcoal rot will be compared to determine their potential under both conventional (check) and intensive management. Plots have been developed and fertilized and herbicide has been applied. Plots were planted in late April and had 8 inches of rain the first 7 days after planting. Plots were replanted in June. We then had 5 inches within 24 hours of planting and stands were lost. Plots were then replanted in June and stands were adequate. However, some varieties/entries were lost due to lack of seed. Plants are now in R3/R4 with average yield potential.
Objective 2 – BMP’s. A second study to develop best management practices for predicting disease and insect problems and need for crop monitoring or treatment has been set up with insect traps and sentinel plots established and set up in the field. This also includes weather data from time of planting to determine the effect of temperature and rainfall on insect and disease infestation in the soybean crop. Data collection is now in process as planting difficulties were similar to Objective 1.
Objective 3 – PGR use on soybean Another study has been planted and treatments have been applied to compare PGR use on soybean to enhance soybean growth and yield especially early in the season. In addition early application and late application of N fertilizer will be evaluated with this study. Study is now in process with all treatments applied.
Objective 4. - Nitrogen Rates in High Yield Dryland and Irrigated Soybean. As a part of the previous objectives study Nitrogen rates and times of application will be utilized throughout the growing season. Their effect on grain yield and quality as well as the agronomic characteristics such as lodging will be followed throughout the year. Plots have been planted and treatments have been applied. Visual response can be seen as application of added early Nitrogen show positive effects.
5. - Novel compounds. Plots have been planted and treatments have been applied like sugar added to spray components to determine if there is an effect and what that effect might be. Other compounds that mimic plant growth regulators such as auxin and kinetin will be applied both early in vegetative and late during pod setting to determine their effects on yield and agronomic characteristics.
Objective 6. – Incorporation of Generic Compounds into a Cost Effective Package. Plots have been planted that compare untreated checks with generic and standard treatments. Comparisons of treatments will include critical stages of growth as well as specific insect and disease occurrence. Cost of treatment as well as effectiveness of treatments will be determined.

Final Project Results

Benefit to Soybean Farmers

Increasing efficiency and effectiveness of soybean production systems should increase net profit. Often it increases gross profit but must also make money for the producer. This research focuses on 6 research topics to increase the efficiency and effectiveness and also net profit in soybean production systems.

Performance Metrics

Project Years