Project Details:

Title:
Multi-dimensional approaches for improved productivity, sustainability, and management of major soybean diseases in the North Central US

Parent Project: This is the first year of this project.
Checkoff Organization:North Central Soybean Research Program
Categories:Soybean diseases
Organization Project Code:
Project Year:2022
Lead Principal Investigator:Damon Smith (University of Wisconsin)
Co-Principal Investigators:
Daren Mueller (Iowa State University)
Rodrigo Borba Onofre (Kansas State University)
Christopher Little (Kansas State University)
Martin Chilvers (Michigan State University)
Horacio Lopez-Nicora (Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center)
Mitchell Roth (Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center)
Darcy Telenko (Purdue University)
Febina Mathew (South Dakota State University)
Ahmad Fakhoury (Southern Illinois University)
Jason Bond (Southern Illinois University at Carbondale)
Dean Malvick (University of Minnesota)
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Contributing Organizations

Funding Institutions

Information and Results

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Project Summary

Soybean is a major field crop in the North Central region and the entire United States. Soybeans are susceptible to an array of disease-causing microbes that can result in significant costs for the farmer and to the environment, due to the application of pesticides to control them. A major premise of the study of plant pathology is that for diseases of plants to occur there must be the presence of a virulent pathogen, a susceptible host, and an environment that is favorable for disease development (host, pathogen, and environment are the legs of the triangle). This last factor stands to be a major driver of plant disease. In fact, the environment can influence when and where pathogens will cause disease problems and a changing climate can result in the occurrence of new diseases affecting soybeans.

Recent changes in weather conditions have led to the re-emergence of some diseases in the North Central region or the expansion of diseases into the region. For example, frogeye leaf spot (caused by the fungus Cercospora sojina) has been an increasing problem in the upper Midwest. In recent years this pathogen has become a more significant issue, causing severe epidemics in states where it traditionally had not been a problem. It is thought that due to climate change, the fungus can survive warmer winters (Roth et al., 2020). In addition, warmer growing seasons result in wetter growing seasons, meaning wind-dispersed rain, and splashing rain, are prominent for dispersal of the frogeye leaf spot pathogen. High humidity also makes for conducive conditions for disease development and high severity.

Cropping systems also have changed leading to increased continuous soybean production and no-till cropping systems. This leads to larger proportions of pathogen inoculum surviving in soybean fields. These changes in production practices over the past decade combined with challenging weather events, require creative solutions for sustainably managing these diseases.

Seedling Disease Complex. Water molds (> 40 species of Pythium, and Phytophthora sojae, Phytophthora sansomeana), and true fungi (Fusarium spp. (including SDS), Macrophomina phaseolina (charcoal rot), and Rhizoctonia solani) have each alone or in combination contributed to stand loss as well as replanting. Much of the research to date has focused on each of these individually, but based on our isolations and diagnostics, it is clear that an approach that focuses on managing these diseases as a complex throughout the soybean growth cycle from planting to harvest is sorely needed. Performing trials with uniform protocols across states, looking for products (seed treatments) that might balance management of more than one pathogen of seedlings is desired.
Foliar Pathogens and Fungicide Resistance. Frogeye leaf spot, caused by Cercospora sojina, has become re-established and is expanding in the North Central Region, and there is little information on the best fungicide timing, most effective fungicides, or the best way to scout to assess the need for a fungicide application (e.g., by foot, drone, or airplane). Specifically, at each growth stage, what levels of disease contribute to yield loss for each maturity group? Experiments to assess if this fungus overwintered were completed in Ohio and Illinois, but not in regions further north. A predictive tool is needed to determine which years C. sojina will overwinter, the inoculum load in the spring necessary to begin an epidemic, and under what conditions a fungicide spray is warranted.

More importantly, is there a continued shift in this fungal pathogen population towards QoI resistant strains in the North Central Region? Does this shift in fungicide sensitivity indicate a change in winter survival? What is the virulence spectrum of these strains? Are the soybean cultivars and germplasm for this region resistant to these strains? Recent evidence from several team members also suggests that the fungus that causes brown spot is not responding to QoI fungicides as it once did. There are also more reports of subtle shifts towards resistance in some fungi to the triazoles, plus the push by some in industry for half rates of fungicides. The role that this half fungicide rate approach will have on the development of resistance as well as fungicide efficacy in low, moderate, and high disease environments is unknown. Monitoring fungicide sensitivity and recommending appropriate timeliness of fungicide applications are critical for continued successful management.

Stem Diseases and Seed Quality. Northern and southern stem canker, pod and stem blight, brown stem rot, and a various array of other diseases affect seed quality in the North Central Region. The basic pathology and disease cycle of these diseases are largely unknown in the North Central Region. These diseases have long been issues in this region. The distribution of the two stem canker diseases (southern and northern) needs further geographic clarification since resistance varies between these two diseases. Additional immediate and important questions for this complex are: Will southern stem canker replace northern stem canker? Will southern stem canker establish and survive in the soil or on weedy hosts in the region? How often does brown stem rot play a role in the stem disease complex? What resistance levels are readily available to these diseases in the Midwest germplasm? Will fungicides limit or control this complex of organisms? Symptoms of these stem diseases, SDS, stem canker, and brown stem rot are all very similar (especially from roadside truck surveys). Can scouting be improved for accurate sampling and or predictive tools developed for in-field management?

Develop predictive models and model validation. Several soybean disease prediction tools currently exist or are being developed. For example, the Sporecaster prediction tool (Willbur et al., 2018 a and b) was developed for white mold and supported by NCSRP and state-level checkoff funds. Models like this use weather information incorporated into mathematical or statistical models to calculate the risk of disease development and help guide timely fungicide applications. These tools can be adapted and validated for other diseases of concern. Diseases continuing to increase in affecting a large number of acres include frogeye leaf spot and stem canker. The Sporecaster framework is flexible and adaptable to various diseases and the delivery of the tool can be done easily placing the tool in the hands of farmers and consultants.

The impact of new cropping systems on soybean diseases throughout the region. Changes in production systems, seeding rates, cover crops, strip tillage, new bio-active treatments, not to mention sugar, have been incorporated into farmer practices. How and if these practices and products favor or inhibit soybean pathogens is unknown. Fertility and the influence of fertility level on soybean diseases isn’t well understood. Understanding fertility influences on disease will be important for sustainably managing new and emerging diseases into the future.

Overall Goal: To develop improved management strategies, and communication of those strategies, for the sustainable management of the major soybean diseases in the North Central U.S.

Project Objectives

Overall Goal: To develop improved management strategies, and communication of those strategies, for the sustainable management of the major soybean diseases in the North Central U.S.

Objective 1: Conduct multi-site-year product efficacy trials to develop a robust, non-partial dataset to educate and inform farmers and practitioners on the performance of disease control products available for soybeans

Objective 1a. Conduct uniform foliar fungicide trials that target a holistic approach to control white mold, frogeye leaf spot, and stem canker (Diaporthe diseases); find programs that might be able to cover these major diseases simultaneously.

Objective 1b. Conduct uniform seed treatment trials to target sudden death syndrome, brown stem rot, Phytophthora root rot, and Pythium root rot.

Objective 2: Conduct research and validation trials to develop and/or validate disease prediction tools or risk studies for major soybean diseases

Objective 2a. Develop a frogeye leaf spot model using the Sporecaster framework.

Objective 2b. Develop prediction tools for stem canker of soybean using the Sporecaster framework.

Objective 2c. Validate an existing soybean sudden death syndrome prediction tool for predicting risk of epidemics in soybean fields.

Objective 3: Develop improved understanding of the biology and epidemiology of emerging and re-emerging diseases of soybean in the North Central Region.

Objective 3a. Monitor for fungicide resistance in the frogeye leaf spot pathogen, Septoria brown spot pathogen, stem canker pathogens, white mold pathogen, Pythium species, and Phytophthora root rot pathogens.

Objective 3b. Develop a better understanding of how to improve seed health and quality with a focus on Diaporthe diseases (stem canker) and brown stem rot.

Objective 3c. Develop improved tools for frogeye leaf spot, sudden death syndrome, and brown stem rot management including fertility impacts on the disease, how rotations influence disease incidence and severity, and how new products like nano-fertilizers and other nanotechnology influence disease.

Objective 3d. Understanding the pathogen complex causing Cercospora leaf blight (CLB) in the North Central region. Conduct a survey in the NC region and understand the pathogen complex and how it relates to what has been identified in the south and mid-south.

Objective 4: Develop extension tools through state extension programs, Crop Protection Network (CPN) and Soybean Research and Information Network (SRIN).

Objective 4a. Use the efficacy information from objective 1a and 1b to inform and update fungicide efficacy charts annually for the Crop Protection Network.

Objective 4b. Communicate with farmers and agribusiness personnel through extension articles, videos, webinars, and field days.

Project Deliverables

The results of this research will be used to not only increase our understanding of the biology and epidemiology of various diseases on soybean, but will be used to formulate improved, modern, sustainable integrated management decisions for the major diseases of soybean in the North Central Region. Several important outcomes and deliverables will result from this research. These include:
- Companion extension publication detailing the foliar fungicide meta-analysis
- Development of new forecasting tools for frogeye leaf spot and stem canker
- Demonstration plots will be available for field days and other educational opportunities in the participating where integrated strategies for managing the major diseases of the North Central region will be showcased
- Fact sheets and publications will be generated using the most current information as a result of this coordinated effort (many of the personnel on this proposal have extension appointments in addition to their research appointments, and all personnel are well-versed in communicating their research to the public).
- Results of research will be presented at stakeholder meetings
- Blog articles will be written on extension personnel websites
- An electronic book will be developed for Sclerotinia stem rot management

Progress of Work

Updated March 30, 2022:
2022 NCSRP 6-Month Report (March 30, 2022)

Submitted by: Damon L. Smith, University of Wisconsin-Madison

The first year of funding for this project started October 1, 2021. While we are just 6 months into the project and haven’t been through a field season yet, we are off to a productive start. We have a common workspace set for this project where we can share protocols and outputs among the work group. We have also had two, 2-hour planning meetings (virtual) on November 2, 2021 and March 23, 2022. Below please find specific updates on our current progress for each objective of the research contract.

Objective 1: Conduct multi-site-year product efficacy trials to develop a robust, non-partial dataset to educate and inform farmers and practitioners on the performance of disease control products available for soybeans.

Protocols for objectives 1a and b have been generated as indicated below.

Objective 1a. Conduct uniform foliar fungicide trials that target a holistic approach to control white mold, frogeye leaf spot, and stem canker (Diaporthe diseases); find programs that might be able to cover these major diseases simultaneously.

The research group has decided to split foliar uniform fungicide trial (UFT) protocols into two separate protocols. We have generated a general foliar UFT targeted at management of frogeye leafspot, Cercospora leaf blight, and Septoria brown spot. The group finalized this protocol at the March 23, 2022 meeting and includes 8 core treatments with 3 core inserts for more “northern” locations in the NC region and 2 core inserts for more “southern” locations (ex. Southern Illinois has a different environment than northern Illinois) in the NC region.

A separate white mold-focused protocol has been generated and finalized (March 23, 2022) for this objective. The group felt that white mold necessitated a separate, focused trial to better understand core treatments for management. This protocol includes 12 core treatments and 5 additional optional treatments. The optional treatments mostly focus on drop-nozzle applications and were deemed optional for locations where researchers do not have the equipment to apply those treatments.

Information from both protocols will be used to inform and update efficacy rating for future Soybean Foliar Fungicide Tables (see Objective 4a below).

Objective 1b. Conduct uniform seed treatment trials to target sudden death syndrome, brown stem rot, Phytophthora root rot, and Pythium root rot.

Two uniform seed treatment trials (finalized at the March 23, 2022 meeting) have been generated and finalized for this objective. The first protocol focuses on sudden death syndrome and includes 7 seed treatments applied to two varieties (an SDS-susceptible and an SDS-resistant). This work follows up on previous NCSRP-funded work evaluating seed treatments on varieties with differing resistance. We include the well documented ILEVO and Saltro seed treatments here, but have expanded to include several new seed treatments being marketed for SDS management, but have not been evaluated in university trials.

The second uniform seed treatment trial focuses on Pythium and Phytophthora. The trial will evaluate 9 treatments on a single variety. Very little uniform multi-state efficacy data is available for seed treatments directed at these pathogens in the NC region. Thus, our uniform, multi site-year approach to this protocol will be important in better understanding seed treatment efficacy across a wide range of environments.

Information from both of these protocols will be used to inform and update efficacy rating for future Soybean Seed Treatment Fungicide Tables (see Objective 4a below).

Objective 2: Conduct research and validation trials to develop and/or validate disease prediction tools or risk studies for major soybean diseases.

Modeling work is underway for each specific disease as indicated below.

Objective 2a. Develop a frogeye leaf spot model using the Sporecaster framework.

We are busily working to aggregate historical frogeye leafspot data from locations across the NC region. We are going to use this historical data to generate new frogeye leafspot models to be validated over the duration of this research contract. We will use UFT locations in objective 1a to evaluate the performance of these models in future years. Active modeling work will begin this spring and summer, 2022.

Objective 2b. Develop prediction tools for stem canker of soybean using the Sporecaster framework.

Like objective 2a, we are aggregating existing stem canker data to determine the best approach to model stem canker diseases. While the datasets for this disease are not as dense as those for frogeye, we do believe that preliminary models can be generated, and we can leverage the UFT trials in objective 1a to validate these models in future years.

Objective 2c. Validate an existing soybean sudden death syndrome prediction tool for predicting risk of epidemics in soybean fields.

Dr. Martin Chilvers as Michigan state University recently hired a new graduate student to lead efforts in refining existing sudden death syndrome prediction models. They are currently working on developing a sampling and validation protocol to leverage data from the SDS seed treatment trial in Objective 1b. While an SDS prediction model exists, this work will be used to validate and refine that tool for mainstream use.

Objective 3: Develop improved understanding of the biology and epidemiology of emerging and re-emerging diseases of soybean in the North Central Region.

Please see specific updates for each sub-objective below.

Objective 3a. Monitor for fungicide resistance in the frogeye leaf spot pathogen, Septoria brown spot pathogen, stem canker pathogens, white mold pathogen, Pythium species, and Phytophthora root rot pathogens.

An extensive number of isolates within each pathogen species causing the respective diseases above have been collected prior to the implementation of this research contract. We are actively documenting and cataloging these isolates, developing protocols, and identifying specific laboratories who can develop baseline fungicide resistance levels in existing isolates. We are also creating protocols to collect additional isolates during this research period to add to the common collection and monitor for fungicide resistance. This will be an on-going objective throughout this project with new isolates collected and evaluated each season.

Objective 3b. Develop a better understanding of how to improve seed health and quality with a focus on Diaporthe diseases (stem canker) and brown stem rot.

A protocol is currently being developed to collect seed from multiple fields in states participating in this research contract. This protocol will be implemented at harvest to understand the impact that Diaporthe diseases and brown stem rot have on seed quality. This line of work is new and has not been intensively pursued in the past. Thus, the information generated here, could bring new insight into the impact that these diseases have on seed quality at harvest.

Objective 3c. Develop improved tools for frogeye leaf spot, sudden death syndrome, and brown stem rot management including fertility impacts on the disease, how rotations influence disease incidence and severity, and how new products like nano-fertilizers and other nanotechnology influence disease.

Two separate uniform research protocols have been generated for this objective. One protocol focuses on sudden death syndrome and includes 6 treatments focused on understanding the interactions of ILEVO seed treatment with traditional soil-applied fertilizers and new foliar-applied fertilizers, on SDS severity. This trial will be first implemented across locations in 2022.

The second protocol focuses on white mold and includes 6 treatments focused on understanding the interactions of foliar applied fungicide (Endura) and traditional soil-applied fertilizers and new foliar-applied fertilizers on white mold severity. This trial will be first implemented across locations in 2022.

Together these two protocols conducted across site-year over the duration of this research contract will allow us to generate informed recommendations on the utility of traditional and new fertilizer strategies in controlling SDS and white mold in the NC region.

Objective 3d. Understanding the pathogen complex causing Cercospora leaf blight (CLB) in the North Central region. Conduct a survey in the NC region and understand the pathogen complex and how it relates to what has been identified in the south and mid-south.

Little information is available pertaining to the causal agents of Cercospora leaf blight in the NC region. Information from the southern region of the U.S. suggests that our prior assumptions of the causal agents of Cercospora leaf blight are incorrect. There might be several species associated with this problem. Without understanding the pathogen population, it is hard to develop effective management strategies for this disease. The goal of this project is to conduct a survey across the NC region to understand the causal organism of this Cercospora leaf blight in the NC region. We speculate that similar trends could be happening in the NC region as compared to the southern region. If this is true, we can then evaluate management methods that might be effective against Cercospora leaf blight, in future work.

Objective 4: Develop extension tools through state extension programs, Crop Protection Network (CPN) and Soybean Research and Information Network (SRIN).

Please see specific sub-objectives below for updates.

Objective 4a. Use the efficacy information from objective 1a and 1b to inform and update fungicide efficacy charts annually for the Crop Protection Network.

New updated version of the Foliar Fungicide Efficacy Table for Soybeans and the Seed Treatment Efficacy Table for Soybeans have been recently posted for the 2022 season. Those respective documents can be found here:

Foliar Fungicide Efficacy Table: https://cropprotectionnetwork.s3.amazonaws.com/CPN1019_FungicideEfficacyControlSoybean_2022.pdf

Seed Treatment Fungicide Efficacy Table: https://cropprotectionnetwork.s3.amazonaws.com/CPN1020_FungicideEfficacySoybeanSeedling_2022-1.pdf

Future versions of these tables will be updated with the information generated from Objectives 1a and b of this research contract.

Objective 4b. Communicate with farmers and agribusiness personnel through extension articles, videos, webinars, and field days.

We have also generated several new peer-reviewed outreach products during this contract period. The first is a white mold web book. This web book was partially supported by prior NCSRP funding. The funding from this new research contract allowed us to finish up this large project. The web book has been peer-reviewed and is now live, with free access. It can be found here: https://cropprotectionnetwork.org/web-books/white-mold-of-soybean.

A research update titled “Modern Integrated Management Practices for Controlling White Mold of Soybean” was also generated during this period. This research update is based on work funded from a previous proposal on white mold that was funded by the NCSRP. This research update combines information from research and new efficacy data from white mold UFT trials into a concise document outlining modern white mold management recommendations. This research report can be found here: https://cropprotectionnetwork.org/publications/modern-integrated-management-practices-for-controlling-white-mold-of-soybean.

Final Project Results

Benefit to Soybean Farmers

Soybean farmers and agriculture scientists will benefit from this research by:
-Gaining an improved understanding of key, modern management strategies for diseases of soybean
-Improved management of soybean diseases resulting in improved yield and profitability
-Improved timing of necessary fungicide applications through use of the advisory tool will improve fungicide efficacy and disease control
-Reduced unnecessary fungicide inputs can be avoided
-A better understand of the breadth of fungicide resistance in soybean pathogen populations
-New and improved outreach materials will be developed, including updated web pages and handouts
-An electronic book will be developed to bring a quick, modern, usable reference into the hands of the next generation of farmers and scientists

Performance Metrics

- Peer-reviewed publications detailing the findings pertaining to fungicide resistance in the major pathogens of soybean in the North Central region
- A peer-reviewed publication and corresponding extension publication detailing improvements in the understanding of seed health in soybean as it relates to the Diaporthe diseases and brown stem rot
- Peer-reviewed publication detailing a comprehensive meta-analysis and economic analysis of the foliar fungicide data from objective 1a.
- Peer-reviewed publication detailing a comprehensive meta-analysis and economic analysis of the seed treatment data from objective 1b.
-A peer-reviewed publication and corresponding extension publication on results of the fungicide resistance screening
-Fact sheets and publications will be generated using the most current information as a result of this coordinated effort

Project Years