Project Details:

Research and extension on emerging soybean pests in the North Central Region

Parent Project: Soybean entomology in the North Central region: Management and outreach for new and existing pests
Checkoff Organization:North Central Soybean Research Program
Categories:Insects and pests, Nematodes
Organization Project Code:
Project Year:2022
Lead Principal Investigator:Kelley Tilmon (The Ohio State University)
Co-Principal Investigators:
Erin Hodgson (Iowa State University)
Matthew O'Neal (Iowa State University)
David Onstad (Iowa State University)
Molly Ryan (Iowa State University)
Brian McCornack (Kansas State University)
Christina DiFonzo (Michigan State University)
Janet Knodel (North Dakota State University)
Deirdre Prischmann-Voldseth (North Dakota State University)
John F Tooker (Pennsylvania State University)
Christian Krupke (Purdue University)
Louis Hesler (South Dakota State University)
Adam Varenhorst (South Dakota State University)
Andy Michel (The Ohio State University)
Doris Lagos-Kutz (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
Nick Seiter (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
Raul Villanueva (University of Kentucky)
Robert Koch (University of Minnesota)
Bruce Potter (University of Minnesota)
Kevin Rice (University of Missouri)
Thomas E Hunt (University of Nebraska)
Justin McMechan (University of Nebraska)
Robert Wright (University of Nebraska)
Shawn Conley (University of Wisconsin)
Bryan Jensen (University of Wisconsin - Madison)
Glen Hartman (USDA/ARS-University of Illinois)
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Keywords: soybean gall midge, resistant germplasm, tillage, stinkbugs,aphids, insecticide resistanc

Contributing Organizations

Funding Institutions

Information and Results

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Project Summary

This proposal has programs related to several insect pest problems of emerging importance in the North Central Region, including soybean gall midge, stink bugs, and soybean aphids. In early 2021 we conducted a series professionally-organized focus group sessions with farmers and crop consultants to assess farmer needs and priorities for pest management research and extension communication. Our objectives are based on the needs-assessment report resulting from this effort [this report is being made available to all soybean checkoff groups]. Farmers identified several concerns. Among these were (1) the emerging threat of soybean gall midge, (2) lack of threshold use for several reasons, but in part because of the time and effort needed to scout, (3) soybean aphid insecticide resistance, (4) the need for pest monitoring and alerts, (5) and the importance of communicating unbiased, research-based pest management information to farmers and their consultants. Other concerns were identified as well, but these are the issues we focused on this this proposal. Soybean gall midge is an emerging pest which can cause significant damage and which appears to be spreading further each year. When this pest became prominent a few short years ago nothing was known about its biology or management. With NCSRP and state checkoff support, entomologists on our team were able to rapidly respond to this new threat by learning its life cycle, some basic facts about its biology, and some preliminary information about possible routes of control. Much work remains. In this proposal we have objectives to run a gall midge emergence monitoring program with rapid real-time alerts which will help farmers know when to scout and when to attempt management. There is an objective to screen landrace germplasm for midge resistance traits to help jump-start breeding efforts for midge-resistant varieties. We are examining both tillage and mowing as cultural controls for gall midge based on promising preliminary data that these approaches can reduce midge damage. Finally, we will perform survey work in new areas to determine the current extent of the gall midges’ range. Regarding farmers’ concerns that scouting difficulty deters threshold use, we have an objective targeting one of the most difficult scouting problems of all – scouting for stink bugs in later-season soybeans. Stink bugs are a stealth pest that can be managed with insecticide, but which usually go unnoticed because the damage (piercing into seeds with straw-like mouthparts) is hard to detect visually. Scouting involves sweeping dense vegetation throughout the field which is both difficult and time consuming; few people do it. We will develop a method to monitor stink bugs from the field edge using sticky cards and pheromone lures. Preliminary data suggests this may be a good alternative to sweeping vegetation, and detection and thresholds based on this method will be easy to employ. This proposal also contains objectives on aphid insecticide resistance, and aphid-resistant varieties. Insecticide resistance is an alarming problem which has been growing since its first detection in 2015. We will determine baseline susceptibility of soybean aphids to newer chemistries, which is the first step in resistance monitoring. We will also screen populations in several states for resistance. Aphid-resistant soybean varieties will become increasingly important as a tool to combat insecticide resistance. As a result of our team’s public-private partnership with Corteva, resistant varieties will soon be available from this major retailer. Our objectives are a new partnership with Corteva, to monitor resistance-breaking virulent aphid biotypes, model the increase of virulence, and to determine the consequences of growing resistant soybeans without supplemental insecticide. In addition, we will continue running a regional aphid and thrips monitoring system. Finally, we have a dedicated objective to turn project results into extension deliverables to communicate state of the art pest management advice to farmers. All of these objectives will contribute to best-practice pest management in soybean, and contribute positively to farmers’ bottom lines.

Project Objectives

Program I. Soybean Gall Midge
1.1 Soybean Gall Midge Alert Network
1.2 Midge-Resistant Soybean Germplasm
1.3 Tillage and Mowing as Control Strategies for Soybean Gall Midge
1.4 New Detection/Injury Survey

Program II. Easier Scouting Methods
2.1 Pheromone-Baited Traps for Stink Bug Monitoring and Thresholds

Program III. Soybean Aphid
3.1 Insecticide Resistance
3.2 Aphid-Resistant Varieties
3.2.1 Impact of growing resistant varieties without insecticide
3.2.2 Frequency and modeling of virulent aphid biotypes
3.3 Suction Trap Network for Monitoring Aphids and Thrips

Program IV. Extension and Outreach
5.1 Extension Deliverables

Project Deliverables

See chart in proposal text.

Progress of Work

Updated April 4, 2022:
During the first reporting period of this new project we prepared for the field season of 2022, for ten new research objectives. This work included devising specific summer research protocols to follow, identifying field sites, having meetings to orient collaborators on research procedures, hiring summer undergraduate help, and obtaining research supplies and materials. The actual research will commence in the spring of 2022.

Outputs during this period: We published a new edition of the factsheet “Management of Insecticide-resistant Soybean Aphids,” which is currently being printed for distribution for the 2022 field season. We also produced a 2nd edition of the field guide, “Stink Bugs of the North Central Region” which is likewise being made available for the 2022 field season.

Final Project Results

Benefit to Soybean Farmers

This project will provide research ultimately leading to management recommendations and educational material on keys soybean insect pests and problems in the North Central Region, including soybean gall midge, stink bugs, and insecticide resistance in aphids.

Performance Metrics

Project Years