Project Details:

Title:
Research and extension on emerging soybean pests in the North Central region

Parent Project: Soybean entomology in the North Central region: Management and outreach for new and existing pests
Checkoff Organization:North Central Soybean Research Program
Categories:Insects and pests, Nematodes
Organization Project Code:
Project Year:2023
Lead Principal Investigator:Kelley Tilmon (The Ohio State University)
Co-Principal Investigators:
Erin Hodgson (Iowa State University)
Matthew O'Neal (Iowa State University)
David Onstad (Iowa State University)
Molly Ryan (Iowa State University)
Brian McCornack (Kansas State University)
Christina DiFonzo (Michigan State University)
Janet Knodel (North Dakota State University)
Deirdre Prischmann-Voldseth (North Dakota State University)
John F Tooker (Pennsylvania State University)
Christian Krupke (Purdue University)
Adam Varenhorst (South Dakota State University)
Andy Michel (The Ohio State University)
Doris Lagos-Kutz (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
Nick Seiter (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
Raul Villanueva (University of Kentucky)
Robert Koch (University of Minnesota)
Bruce Potter (University of Minnesota)
Kevin Rice (University of Missouri)
Thomas E Hunt (University of Nebraska)
Justin McMechan (University of Nebraska)
Robert Wright (University of Nebraska)
Shawn Conley (University of Wisconsin)
Glen Hartman (USDA/ARS-University of Illinois)
Louis Helser (USDA-ARS - National Center Agricultural Utilization Research)
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Contributing Organizations

Funding Institutions

Information and Results

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Project Summary

This proposal is a request for a Year 2 renewal on the three-year project plan first
submitted in May 2021. Funding on Year 1 began in October 2021, and we are currently starting the first
field season of the Year 1 plan. This proposal has programs related to several insect pest problems of
emerging importance in the North Central Region. In early 2021 we conducted a series professionally organized
focus group sessions with farmers and crop consultants to assess farmer needs and priorities for
pest management research and extension communication. Our objectives are based on the needs assessment
report resulting from this effort [this report is being made available to all soybean checkoff
groups]. Farmers identified several concerns. Among these were (1) the emerging threat of soybean gall
midge, (2) lack of threshold use for several reasons, but in part because of the time and effort needed to
scout, (3) soybean aphid insecticide resistance, (4) the need for pest monitoring and alerts, (5) and the
importance of communicating unbiased, research-based pest management information to farmers and
their consultants. Other concerns were identified as well, but these are the issues we focused on this this
proposal. Soybean gall midge is an emerging pest which can cause significant damage and which appears
to be spreading further each year. When this pest became prominent a few short years ago nothing was
known about its biology or management. With NCSRP and state checkoff support, entomologists on our
team were able to rapidly respond to this new threat by learning its life cycle, some basic facts about its
biology, and some preliminary information about possible routes of control. Much work remains. In this
proposal we have objectives to run a gall midge emergence monitoring program with rapid real-time alerts
which will help farmers know when to scout and when to attempt management. There is an objective to
screen landrace germplasm for midge resistance traits to help jump-start breeding efforts for midgeresistant
varieties. We are examining both tillage and mowing as cultural controls for gall midge based on
promising preliminary data that these approaches can reduce midge damage. Finally, we will perform
survey work in new areas to determine the current extent of the gall midges’ range. Regarding farmers’
concerns that scouting difficulty deters threshold use, we have an objective targeting one of the most
difficult scouting problems of all – scouting for stink bugs in later-season soybeans. Stink bugs are a stealth
pest that can be managed with insecticide, but which usually go unnoticed because the damage (piercing
into seeds with straw-like mouthparts) is hard to detect visually. Scouting involves sweeping dense
vegetation throughout the field which is both difficult and time consuming; few people do it. We will
develop a method to monitor stink bugs from the field edge using sticky cards and pheromone lures.
Preliminary data suggests this may be a good alternative to sweeping vegetation, and detection and
thresholds based on this method will be easy to employ. This proposal also contains objectives on aphid
insecticide resistance, and aphid-resistant varieties. Insecticide resistance is an alarming problem which
has been growing since its first detection in 2015. We will determine baseline susceptibility of soybean
aphids to newer chemistries, which is the first step in resistance monitoring. We will also screen
populations in several states for resistance. Aphid-resistant soybean varieties will become increasingly
important as a tool to combat insecticide resistance. As a result of our team’s public-private partnership
with Corteva, resistant varieties will soon be available from this major retailer. Our objectives are a new
partnership with Corteva, to monitor resistance-breaking virulent aphid biotypes, model the increase of
virulence, and to determine the consequences of growing resistant soybeans without supplemental
insecticide. In addition, we will continue running regional aphid monitoring system. Finally, we have a
dedicated objective to turn project results into extension deliverables to communicate state of the art pest
management advice to farmers. All of these objectives will contribute to best-practice pest management in
soybean, and contribute positively to farmers’ bottom lines.

Project Objectives

Program I. Soybean Gall Midge
1.1 Soybean Gall Midge Alert Network
1.2 Midge-Resistant Soybean Germplasm
1.3 Tillage and Mowing as Control Strategies for Soybean Gall Midge
1.4 New Detection/Injury Survey

Program II. Easier Scouting Methods
2.1 Pheromone-Baited Traps for Stink Bug Monitoring and Thresholds

Program III. Soybean Aphid
3.1 Insecticide Resistance
3.2 Aphid-Resistant Varieties
3.2.1 Impact of growing resistant varieties without insecticide
3.2.2 Frequency and modeling of virulent aphid biotypes
3.3 Suction Trap Network for Monitoring Aphids and Thrips

Program IV. Extension and Outreach
4.1 Extension Deliverables

Project Deliverables

Soybean gall midge alert network
Identify gall midge resistant germplasm
Evaluate tillage and mowing as control strategies for gall midge
Updated gall midge distribution information (including new locations)
Bait+trap-based stink bug monitoring tool (2nd year of data)
Assessment of new soybean aphid insecticide resistance (2nd year of data)
Data for a summary on frequency of soybean aphid virulence in NC region
Seasonal soybean aphid monitoring via suction trap network
Extension products based on project results

Progress of Work

Final Project Results

Benefit to Soybean Farmers

The objectives in this proposal are designed around a formal needs assessment conducted prior to the project, where we worked with farmers to identify top priorities for pest management. Farmers identified several concerns. Among these were (1) the emerging threat of soybean gall midge, (2) lack of threshold use for several reasons, but in part because of the time and effort needed to scout, (3) soybean aphid insecticide resistance, (4) the need for pest monitoring and alerts, (5) and the importance of communicating unbiased, research-based pest management information to farmers and
their consultants. Addressing these objectives will help farmers to be better informed about the pest problems in their fields and the best way to monitor and manage them most profitably.

Performance Metrics

See table in Proposal. Each project objective has a well-defined set of metrics and milestones that included research, surveys, data collection and analysis, and the communication of results and information, especially targeted at increasing knowledge sets and providing soybean farmers with useful insights for short- and long-term insect pest management.

Project Years

YearProject Title (each year)
2023Research and extension on emerging soybean pests in the North Central region
2022Research and extension on emerging soybean pests in the North Central Region
2021Soybean Entomology Research and Extension in the North Central Region
2020Soybean Entomology Research and Extension in the North Central Region
2020Soybean Entomology Research and Extension in the North Central Region
2019Soybean Entomology in the North Central Region: Management and Outreach for New and Existing Pests
2018Soybean Entomology in the North Central Region: Management and Outreach for New and Emerging Pests
2017Soybean Entomology in the North Central Region: Management and outreach for New and Existing Pests (2017)
2016Soybean entomology in the North Central region: Management and outreach for new and existing pests