Project Details:

Title:
Implementation of the Iowa Pest Resistance Management Plan

Parent Project: Implementation of the Iowa Pest Resistance Management Plan
Checkoff Organization:Iowa Soybean Association
Categories:Insects and pests, Soybean diseases, Weed control
Organization Project Code:
Project Year:2018
Lead Principal Investigator:Steven Bradbury (Iowa State University)
Co-Principal Investigators:
Keywords: Insect Pests, Soybean Aphid (SA), Soybean Outreach and Education, Weed Management

Contributing Organizations

Funding Institutions

Information and Results

Comprehensive project details are posted online for three-years only, and final reports indefinitely. For more information on this project please contact this state soybean organization.

Click a section heading to display its contents.

Final Project Results

Updated October 3, 2018:
Progress Report for Year 2
PI Name: Steven P. Bradbury
Year 2 Funding period: Oct 1, 2017 - Sep 30, 2018; Project Period Oct 1, 2016 – Sep 30, 2019
Report date: September 30, 2018
Funding amount: $25,000 for year 2; $75,000 over three years
Project Title: IMPLEMENTATION OF THE IOWA PEST RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT PLAN
Background. The Iowa Pest Resistance Management Program (IPRMP) is an effort involving all members of Iowa’s agricultural sector to slow the development of pesticide resistance in weeds (e.g., waterhemp, marestail, giant ragweed, Palmer amaranth), insects (e.g., soybean aphid and western corn rootworm), and pathogens (e.g., frogeye leaf spot). Pest resistance to commonly used herbicides, insecticides, fungicides and genetic traits (e.g., Bt corn), are occurring and spreading across Iowa at rates much faster than new pest management technologies are being discovered. Failure of current pest management products to control pests before new technologies enter the marketplace will significantly increase input costs and/or reduce yields. By slowing resistance development, valuable pest management technologies can be preserved to help protect long-term farm profitability.

The spread of pesticide resistance in Iowa is due, in part, to the fact that pests are mobile and cross neighbors’ field boundaries. For example, weed seeds can be blown in the wind or transported in contaminated combines. Pyrethroid-resistant soybean aphids and Bt-resistant western corn rootworm adults can fly and/or be blown by the wind to neighboring fields. Hence, failure to manage pest resistance in one field can lead to resistance development in a neighboring field, even if that farmer is implementing sound management practices. Engaging all sectors of Iowa agriculture utilizing a coordinated approach among neighboring farmers and their advisors will slow the spread of resistance by mobile pests.
The Iowa Pest Resistance Management Plan was created by more than 12 Iowa organizations, including Iowa Soybean Association, Iowa Corn Growers Association, Iowa Farm Bureau Federation, Iowa Institute for Cooperatives, the Iowa Chapter of the American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers, the Agribusiness Association of Iowa, with support from the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship and the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Iowa State University. Pest resistance has the potential to decrease yields, increase the cost of production, reduce land value, and limit farmers’ future pest management options. With that in mind, the IPRMP was developed with a broad cross-section of Iowa agricultural partners to address this important issue with an adaptive approach that can incorporate new information. The plan describes the need for developing collaborations between farmers, agronomists, seed and pesticide dealers, landowners and other agricultural professionals to slow the development of pest resistance. The plan highlights how Iowa farmers play a leading role in stewardship of pest management technologies through the decisions they make. In addition, the plan notes that working with agronomists, crop advisors, and ag retailers is a key for the successful, widespread adoption of pest resistance management practices.

The Iowa plan engages the entire ag community on the issue of pest resistance management with the goal of keeping technology and tools—including pesticides for controlling weeds, insects, and disease; seed treatments; and biotechnology products and native traits—available and effective. Farmers make management decisions each year on more than 23 million row-crop acres. Farmers’ proactive adoption of resistance management practices will help them remain competitive in the global market by maintaining the long-term productivity of Iowa agriculture, while reducing pest-associated yield losses.
The ISA project titled, “Implementation of the Iowa Pest Resistance Management Plan” supports management, coordination and accountability to implement voluntary, community-based pest resistance management, consistent with the state’s plan.
The three-year ISA project is leveraging support from the ICGA and the IFBF, which are each providing $75,000 ($150,000 combined). Pest management technology providers through the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (ADAMA, AgBiTech, BASF, Bayer, Corteva, FMC, Mitsui Chemicals Agro, Monsanto, Nihon Nohyaku, Sumitomo Chemical, Syngenta, and Vestergaard), the Herbicide Resistance Action Committee (Arysta LifeScience, BASF, Bayer CropScience, Dow AgroSciences, DuPont, FMC, ADAMA, Monsanto, Syngenta, and Sumitomo) and ABSTC (Monsanto, Syngenta, Dow AgroSciences, Bayer, and DuPont Pioneer) are providing additional funds with the intention of matching the support provided by ISA, ICGA and IFBF. To date $77,500 have been received from the industry associations. In addition, we were awarded a $50,000 grant from the USDA North Central IPM Center.
Communication and outreach is key to this project’s success. Clear, consistent messaging from all stakeholders is crucial to raising awareness and increasing understanding of pest resistance and the factors that contribute to its development. Certified Crop Advisers, independent crop consultants, agriculture retailers and other agronomic and farm advisers are key collaborators in this effort. Moving forward partnering organizations, including commodity groups and coops, are utilizing existing partnerships and networks to reach out to farmers and landowners about adopting resistance management practices on their farms. Knowledge is being shared through press releases, blog posts, field days, and local-community events. The IPRMP website, www.ProtectIowaCrops.org, serves as a central hub for news, progress, information, announcements, and other relevant resources.
Community-based pilot projects are being implemented across the state of Iowa, each focused on an insect or weed resistance issue. Through discussions with a broad cross-section of stakeholders, a refined understanding of local perceptions, level of awareness, and current management practices is being gathered. As barriers to implementation of resistance management options are identified, solutions to overcoming these barriers are being designed. Barriers may include gaps in knowledge, time constraints, lack of necessary equipment, unavailability of necessary tools, and economic constraints.

Four community pilot projects are being developed—two address insect pests and two address weed issues:
• Herbicide-resistant waterhemp in central Iowa
• Palmer amaranth and other resistant weeds in Harrison County
• Soybean aphid resistance to pyrethroids in northern Iowa
• Western corn rootworm resistance to Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) traits in corn in northeastern Iowa.
For each pilot project, teams are being assembled with representation from all sectors of agriculture, including farmers, crop advisers, commodity group representatives, agricultural retailers, seed dealers, lenders, university research and extension, and representatives from seed and pesticide companies. Identifying and engaging key influencers is crucial in to maximize visibility and credibility within communities. Tapping into existing community networks is instrumental. Project plans are being developed from the “ground-up,” with extensive input and guidance from farmers and other local stakeholders. A broad cross-section of stakeholders is vital as each brings unique viewpoints and valuable insights into barriers to adoption of resistance management practices and potential solutions.

Project report for fall 2018. For additional details, see attachment. Since the March 2018 progress report, the following milestones have been met:
• Team leads, program manager, and project participants for the four pilot projects– Palmer amaranth and herbicide resistant weeds in Harrison County; herbicide resistant waterhemp in central Iowa; soybean aphid resistance to pyrethroids in northern Iowa; and western corn rootworm resistance to Bt in Bremer County–held meetings to gain knowledge and participation, assess current practices, and brainstorm strategies.

Palmer amaranth and herbicide resistant weeds in Harrison County: Six meetings were held during this reporting period with project participants from ICGA, IFBF, Midstates Bank, Farm Credit Services of America, Heartland Coop, ISU Extension and Outreach, Agriland FS, Monsanto, USDA FSA, BASF, and local farmers. Replicated trials were implemented with cooperators at four sites- three soybean sites (two no-till and one tilled) and one corn site. Ten comprehensive herbicide programs were applied by a custom applicator (DM Crop Research). Two field days were held: one at the corn site on June 18th, the other at one of the no-till soybean sites on July 13th. Attendance at the first field day was modest. Thirty-five people attended the second field day, an increase we attribute to increased promotion of the event and hiring the Iowa Cattlemen to grill. Funds to hire the Iowa Cattlemen were generously provided by Midstates Bank and FCSA. In addition to the field demonstrations, attendees received tutorials on Palmer amaranth identification, and results of weed screenings for herbicide resistance. A video was produced to document the soybean field day to be used for project promotion and can be viewed at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ydTzOFrZREY&t=7s. On August 2nd, we had the opportunity to brief US EPA and USDA representatives about the Iowa Pest Resistance Management Program and the Harrison County pilot. The Harrison County pilot team presented results of the field trials and promoted the project at a Pre-Harvest Crop Fair in Dunlap on September 18th as well.

Herbicide resistant waterhemp: Six meetings were held with participants from DuPont Pioneer, Dow Agrosciences, Syngenta, Monsanto, Key Coop, Heartland Coop, ISU Extension and Outreach, and Hertz Farm Management. The project was promoted at an Extension Herbicide Resistance field day in June. Numerous discussions were carried out with local cooperators concerning on farm field trials, but due to a late Spring and other concerns all cooperators ended up declining involvement. Additional progress for this project has been hampered by retirements of key project leaders, lack of commitment by technology providers, and unsuccessful attempts to obtain commitment and local leadership.

Soybean aphid resistance to pyrethroids: Discussions have been held with ISA directors April Hemmes, Suzanne Shirbroun, Brent Renner and former ISA President Wayne Fredericks. Among the topics of discussion were the interaction between fungicide applications and the preventative application of insecticides, as well as a concern about the interaction between soybean cyst nematode and soybean aphid. Discussions have also been held with University of Minnesota Extension and research personnel on potential collaboration. Discussions with growers and agronomists have indicated that soybean aphid resistance is fairly low on the hierarchy of concerns for growers, well below such issues as weed management and trade issues. Increasing grower awareness and recognition of the risk poses by pyrethroid resistance in soybean aphid remains a challenge.

Western corn rootworm resistance to Bt traits- Efforts to identify the best location and team for this project continue. A meeting was set up in Fayette County to discuss Bt resistance and the potential of a project in Delaware or surrounding counties. Delaware is being targeted due to its high frequency of continuous corn, history of Bt resistance, and reported unexpected damage cases concerning cry 34/35. A statewide grower survey of management practices and awareness of Bt resistance was conducted to inform future project directions and is currently under analysis.

• Outreach and communication since March 2018 included six presentations, seven articles, and one video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ydTzOFrZREY&t=7s.

Looking forward to year three of the project, the project manager and pilot project leads will continue to meet with local stakeholders and build pilot project teams to include a broad cross section of stakeholders. Project teams will work towards develop and implement work plans for the 2018 season. Outreach efforts will continue to expand visibility of the Iowa Pest Resistance Management Project and pilot efforts. Project manager will continue to seek external funding for program and pilot projects. Communication efforts will be distributed locally and statewide, and will publicize progress made by pilot projects. The IPRMP website, www.ProtectIowaCrop.org, will be updated and expanded with informational resources, updates, and communication pieces regarding program progress. Specific goals for each pilot project for year three include:
• Palmer amaranth and herbicide resistant weeds in Harrison County
? Assess year two work plan, including successes and areas for improvement
? Work to expand visibility in county and continue to expand participation
? Plan and implement 2019 field activities and demonstrations
? Organize two field days to highlight corn and soybean field trials
? Produce communication pieces to publicize the field trials and their results

• Herbicide resistant waterhemp- Central Iowa
? Expand project team by continuing to reach out to under-represented local stakeholders.
? Increase local leadership of pilot project by team members.
? Implement field trials to demonstrate resistance management practices effective for managing resistant waterhemp.
? Create news article(s) and press releases to publicize the waterhemp pilot project and IPRMP in local community.

• Soybean aphid resistance to pyrethroids
? Continue discussions with stakeholders to formulate best tactic for project potentially involving pyrethroid resistance, fungicide use, and SCN.
? Identify opportunities for collaboration with stakeholders from neighboring states.

• Bt resistance in Western corn rootworm
? Expand pilot project team in Bremer County to incorporate under-represented stakeholder groups.
? Continue efforts to initiate project in Delaware County
? Increase local leadership of pilot project by team members.
? Identify and take advantage of all opportunities for grower education and raising awareness of Bt resistance and identified knowledge gaps
? Distribute survey of current management practices and awareness of Bt resistance to obtain an accurate picture of baseline practices and understanding.

The project team also submitted a letter of intent for a USDA grant to assess socio-economic factors that influence the formation of community-based pest resistance management. USDA accepted the letter of intent; a full proposal is due to USDA by October 22, 2018. The proposal builds from the four pilot projects in the IPRMP. Letters of support in the grant proposal will include those from the ISU Dean of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, the Vice President for Extension and Outreach and numerous faculty. In addition, the Iowa Soybean Association, the Iowa Corn Growers Association, the Iowa Farm Bureau Federation, Iowa Institute of Cooperatives, Agribusiness Association of Iowa, Insecticide Resistance Action Committee, Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, and Agricultural Biotechnology Stewardship Technical Committee have provided/are providing letters of support. The proposal will be for $300K over three years.

View uploaded report PDF file

The ISA project titled, “Implementation of the Iowa Pest Resistance Management Plan” supports management, coordination and accountability to implement voluntary, community-based pest resistance management, consistent with the state’s plan.

The three-year ISA project is leveraging support from the ICGA and the IFBF, which are each providing $75,000 over three years ($150,000 over three years when combined with ISA support). To date $77,500 have been received from the industry associations. In addition, we were awarded a $50,000 grant from the USDA North Central IPM Center.

The Iowa Pest Resistance Management Plan was created by more than 12 Iowa organizations, including Iowa Soybean Association, Iowa Corn Growers Association, Iowa Farm Bureau Federation, Iowa Institute for Cooperatives, the Iowa Chapter of the American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers, the Agribusiness Association of Iowa, with support from the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship and the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Iowa State University. Pest resistance has the potential to decrease yields, increase the cost of production, reduce land value, and limit farmers’ future pest management options. With that in mind, the IPRMP was developed with a broad cross-section of Iowa agricultural partners to address this important issue with an adaptive approach that can incorporate new information. The plan describes the need for developing collaborations between farmers, agronomists, seed and pesticide dealers, landowners and other agricultural professionals to slow the development of pest resistance. The plan highlights how Iowa farmers play a leading role in stewardship of pest management technologies through the decisions they make. In addition, the plan notes that working with agronomists, crop advisors, and ag retailers is a key for the successful, widespread adoption of pest resistance management practices.

To date, outputs from the IPRMP to date include two field days, four videos, one webinar, 19 presentations, three extension publications, and 20 articles on websites and in online and print publications. A website, www.ProtectIowaCrops.org, serves as a central hub for project news, information, and resistance-related resources. A video produced to document a soybean field day on resistance weed management can be viewed at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ydTzOFrZREY&t=7s

To advance implementation of a community-based approach to resistance management the Iowa plan identified four pilot projects in different locations across the state. The pilot projects were envisioned to incorporate the most current, up-to-date pest management science and recommendations while also acknowledging the socio-economic realities farmers are facing. Development of the pilot projects began 2016-2017. Each pilot project is intended to have representation from all sectors of agriculture, including farmers, crop advisers, commodity groups, agricultural retailers, seed dealers, lenders, university research and extension, and representatives from seed and chemical companies. A broad cross-section of stakeholders is vital as each brings unique viewpoints and valuable insights into barriers to adoption of RMPs and potential solutions. Project plans are being developed from the “ground-up” by the local teams. A brief summary of the four pilots’ status are provided below.

Pilot 1: Harrison County: Palmer amaranth and herbicide resistant weeds. This is the most advanced project. This local team has a dedicated, motivated local farmer serving as project lead and a stable, diverse project team consisting of farmers, retail and extension agronomists, representatives from technology companies, and lenders that has been meeting every 1 to 2 months since the summer of 2017. This group understands the seriousness of the issue and what must be done to make progress; namely to change the mindset regarding weed management to confront the threat of herbicide resistance. Tangible progress towards project goals include completion of a postcard survey of grower awareness and management practices, field trials in four cooperator corn and soybean fields demonstrating comprehensive weed management programs, two field days, one video, collection and screening of weed seeds for herbicide resistance, and numerous outreach publications.

Pilot 2: Western corn rootworm resistance to Bt traits. We have been meeting with stakeholders in northeast Iowa to understand awareness and attitudes concerning Bt-resistance, identify barriers to adoption of resistance management practices, and identify potential participants and leaders. Discussions have taken place in three Northeastern Iowa counties. A statewide grower survey was also conducted in the summer of 2018 to better assess grower perspectives. Thus far discussions and the survey indicate challenges to greater adoption of best management practices include grower disinterest in crop rotation due to field topography, proximity to ethanol plants, maintaing livestock operations, and lack of confidence in the feasibility of profitable soybean production on their land. Other challenges include inadequate knowledge of Bt traits and the current resistance profile, and beliefs that commercialization of new technologies to solve the problem are imminent.

Pilot 3: Herbicide resistant waterhemp in Story County. Meetings have been held with a diverse group of stakeholders in Story County, including land managers, coop agronomists, technology providers, and university extension. Awareness of herbicide resistance is high, and the urgency of the problem is recognized; however, leaders have yet to emerge. This county includes seed production fields in addition to commodity production, which in turn may reflect multiple communities of producers and support networks in play, which adds another layer of social and economic complexities. This project will provide a useful comparison with Harrison County for factors related to community team formation and socio-economic constraints.

Pilot 4: Soybean aphid resistance to pyrethroids. Soybean aphid resistance to pyrethroids is an emerging threat. This project serves as a test for the ability to initiate pest resistance management in the early stages of resistance development, before most producers see a significant problem. Preliminary discussions have been held with prominent soybean producers, securing valuable information and insights. The extent to which growers or their advisors are scouting fields every seven to ten days from the end of June through R5.5, as recommended by Extension entomologists, is uncertain. Despite a well-documented and supported economic threshold for aphid management, some discussions indicate a belief that the economic threshold is well below that level due to the economics of application, commodity prices, and misinformation; e.g., a concern there is an interaction between soybean cyst nematode and soybean aphid. In addition, prophylactic insecticide applications are applied as a tank mix with scheduled fungicide treatments, which in some instances are being applied to enhance yields. Previous research indicates decisions to use fungicides in corn production are likely influenced by perceived economic gains, held beliefs, and attitude towards risk.

Looking forward to year three of the project, the project manager and pilot project leads will continue to meet with local stakeholders and build pilot project teams to include a broad cross section of stakeholders. Project teams will work towards develop and implement work plans for the 2018 season. Outreach efforts will continue to expand visibility of the Iowa Pest Resistance Management Project and pilot efforts. Project manager will continue to seek external funding for program and pilot projects. Communication efforts will be distributed locally and statewide, and will publicize progress made by pilot projects. The IPRMP website, www.ProtectIowaCrop.org, will be updated and expanded with informational resources, updates, and communication pieces regarding program progress.

The project team also submitted a letter of intent for a USDA grant to assess socio-economic factors that influence the formation of community-based pest resistance management. USDA accepted the letter of intent in mid-August, 2018; a full proposal is due to USDA by October 22, 2018. The proposal builds from the four pilot projects in the IPRMP. Letters of support in the grant proposal will include those from the Iowa State University Dean of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Vice President for Extension and Outreach and numerous research and extension faculty. In addition, the Iowa Soybean Association, the Iowa Corn Growers Association, the Iowa Farm Bureau Federation, Iowa Institute of Cooperatives, Agribusiness Association of Iowa, Insecticide Resistance Action Committee, Herbicide Resistance Action Committee, and Agricultural Biotechnology Stewardship Technical Committee have provided/are providing letters of support. The proposal will be for $300K over three years.

Project Years